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Article

Type-II tRNAs and Evolution of Translation Systems and the Genetic Code

1
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Blue Ridge Community and Technical College, Martinsburg, WV 25403, USA
3
Bioinformatics Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103275
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure, Function and Evolution of the Ribosome)
Because tRNA is the core biological intellectual property that was necessary to evolve translation systems, tRNAomes, ribosomes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and the genetic code, the evolution of tRNA is the core story in evolution of life on earth. We have previously described the evolution of type-I tRNAs. Here, we use the same model to describe the evolution of type-II tRNAs, with expanded V loops. The models are strongly supported by inspection of typical tRNA diagrams, measuring lengths of V loop expansions, and analyzing the homology of V loop sequences to tRNA acceptor stems. Models for tRNA evolution provide a pathway for the inanimate-to-animate transition and for the evolution of translation systems, the genetic code, and cellular life. View Full-Text
Keywords: type-II tRNA; V loop; V loop-acceptor stem homology; minihelices; evolution of tRNA; evolution of translation systems type-II tRNA; V loop; V loop-acceptor stem homology; minihelices; evolution of tRNA; evolution of translation systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.; Kowiatek, B.; Opron, K.; Burton, Z.F. Type-II tRNAs and Evolution of Translation Systems and the Genetic Code. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103275

AMA Style

Kim Y, Kowiatek B, Opron K, Burton ZF. Type-II tRNAs and Evolution of Translation Systems and the Genetic Code. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(10):3275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103275

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Yunsoo; Kowiatek, Bruce; Opron, Kristopher; Burton, Zachary F. 2018. "Type-II tRNAs and Evolution of Translation Systems and the Genetic Code" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 10: 3275. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103275

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