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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 231;

Mast Cells: Key Contributors to Cardiac Fibrosis

Kolling Institute for Medical Research, University of Sydney, St Leonards 2065, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix in Development and Disease)
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Historically, increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with fibrosis in numerous cardiac pathologies, implicating mast cells in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Subsequently, several approaches have been utilised to demonstrate a causal role for mast cells in animal models of cardiac fibrosis including mast cell stabilising compounds, rodents deficient in mast cells, and inhibition of the actions of mast cell-specific proteases such as chymase and tryptase. Whilst most evidence supports a pro-fibrotic role for mast cells, there is evidence that in some settings these cells can oppose fibrosis. A major gap in our current understanding of cardiac mast cell function is identification of the stimuli that activate these cells causing them to promote a pro-fibrotic environment. This review will present the evidence linking mast cells to cardiac fibrosis, as well as discuss the major questions that remain in understanding how mast cells contribute to cardiac fibrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart; protease; tryptase; chymase; TNF-α; collagen; extracellular matrix; histamine heart; protease; tryptase; chymase; TNF-α; collagen; extracellular matrix; histamine

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Levick, S.P.; Widiapradja, A. Mast Cells: Key Contributors to Cardiac Fibrosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 231.

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