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Article

Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Bone Fragility Fractures in HIV-Infected Patients: A Case Control Study

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
2
Infectious Diseases Unit-ARNAS Civico, Di Cristina, Benfratelli, 90127 Palermo, Italy
3
Department of Health Promotion Sciences and Mother and Child Care “G. D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010119
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 23 December 2017 / Published: 2 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
HIV-infected patients show high risk of fracture. The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of vertebral fractures (VFs) and their associations with vitamin D in HIV patients. 100 patients with HIV infection and 100 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Bone mineral density was measured by quantitative ultrasound at the non-dominant heel. Serum osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1 served as bone turnover markers. Bone ultrasound measurements were significantly lower in patients compared with controls (Stiffness Index (SI): 80.58 ± 19.95% vs. 93.80 ± 7.10%, respectively, p < 0.001). VFs were found in 16 patients and in 2 controls. HIV patients with vertebral fractures showed lower stiffness index (SI) (70.75 ± 10.63 vs. 83.36 ± 16.19, respectively, p = 0.045) and lower vitamin D levels (16.20 ± 5.62 vs. 28.14 ± 11.94, respectively, p < 0.02). The majority of VFs (87.5%) were observed in HIV-infected patients with vitamin D insufficiency, and regression analysis showed that vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with vertebral fractures (OR 9.15; 95% CI 0.18–0.52, p < 0.04). VFs and are a frequent occurrence in HIV-infected patients and may be associated with vitamin D insufficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone ultrasound; HIV; osteoporosis; vertebral fractures; vitamin D bone ultrasound; HIV; osteoporosis; vertebral fractures; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Atteritano, M.; Mirarchi, L.; Venanzi-Rullo, E.; Santoro, D.; Iaria, C.; Catalano, A.; Lasco, A.; Arcoraci, V.; Lo Gullo, A.; Bitto, A.; Squadrito, F.; Cascio, A. Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Bone Fragility Fractures in HIV-Infected Patients: A Case Control Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010119

AMA Style

Atteritano M, Mirarchi L, Venanzi-Rullo E, Santoro D, Iaria C, Catalano A, Lasco A, Arcoraci V, Lo Gullo A, Bitto A, Squadrito F, Cascio A. Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Bone Fragility Fractures in HIV-Infected Patients: A Case Control Study. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(1):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010119

Chicago/Turabian Style

Atteritano, Marco, Luigi Mirarchi, Emmanuele Venanzi-Rullo, Domenico Santoro, Chiara Iaria, Antonino Catalano, Antonino Lasco, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Alberto Lo Gullo, Alessandra Bitto, Francesco Squadrito, and Antonio Cascio. 2018. "Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Bone Fragility Fractures in HIV-Infected Patients: A Case Control Study" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 1: 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010119

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