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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1496;

Clinical Applications of Autophagy Proteins in Cancer: From Potential Targets to Biomarkers

Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1L3, Canada
Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
Centre for Cell Biology, Development, and Disease, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
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Autophagy, a lysosome-mediated intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, plays multiple context-dependent roles in tumorigenesis and treatment resistance. Encouraging results from various preclinical studies have led to the initiation of numerous clinical trials with the intention of targeting autophagy in various cancers. Accumulating knowledge of the particular mechanisms and players involved in different steps of autophagy regulation led to the ongoing discovery of small molecule inhibitors designed to disrupt this highly orchestrated process. However, the development of validated autophagy-related biomarkers, essential for rational selection of patients entering clinical trials involving autophagy inhibitors, is lagging behind. One possible source of biomarkers for this purpose is the autophagy machinery itself. In this review, we address the recent trends, challenges and advances in the assessment of the biomarker potential of clinically relevant autophagy proteins in human cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; cancer; biomarkers; immunohistochemistry autophagy; cancer; biomarkers; immunohistochemistry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bortnik, S.; Gorski, S.M. Clinical Applications of Autophagy Proteins in Cancer: From Potential Targets to Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1496.

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