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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1566;

New Insights into the Role of Autophagy in Tumor Immune Microenvironment

Research Assistant Center, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Chinese Medicine Department, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City 231, Taiwan
Department of Pathology, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 242, Taiwan
National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan 704, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex system that is affected by various factors, including hypoxia, acidosis, and immune and inflammatory responses, which have significant effects on tumor adhesion, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and autophagy. In this hostile tumor microenvironment, autophagy of tumor cells can promote tumor growth and metastasis. As autophagy is a double-edged sword in tumors, treatment of cancer via regulation of autophagy is extremely complicated. Therefore, understanding the relationship between tumor autophagy and the tumor microenvironment is extremely important. As the immune milieu plays an important role in tumor development, immunotherapy has become a promising form of cancer therapy. A multi-pronged treatment approach using immunotherapy and molecular targets may become the major direction for future cancer treatments. This article reviews existing knowledge regarding the immune factors in the tumor microenvironment and the status of tumor autophagy research. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; tumor immunity; tumor microenvironment; tumor immunotherapy autophagy; tumor immunity; tumor microenvironment; tumor immunotherapy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, C.-J.; Liao, W.-T.; Wu, M.-Y.; Chu, P.-Y. New Insights into the Role of Autophagy in Tumor Immune Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1566.

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