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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1479;

Impact of Autophagy in Oncolytic Adenoviral Therapy for Cancer

Center for Innovative Clinical Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Minimally Invasive Therapy Center, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autophagy at the Intersection of the Immune System and Cancer)
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Oncolytic virotherapy has recently emerged as a promising strategy for inducing tumor-specific cell death. Adenoviruses are widely and frequently used in oncolytic virotherapy. The mechanism of oncolytic adenovirus-mediated tumor suppression involves virus-induced activation of the autophagic machinery in tumor cells. Autophagy is a cytoprotective process that produces energy via lysosomal degradation of intracellular components as a physiologic response to various stresses, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and disruption of growth signaling. However, infection with oncolytic adenoviruses induces autophagy and subsequent death of tumor cells rather than enhancing their survival. In this review, we summarize the beneficial role of autophagy in oncolytic adenoviral therapy, including the roles of infection, replication, and cell lysis. Numerous factors are involved in the promotion and inhibition of oncolytic adenovirus-mediated autophagy. Furthermore, recent evidence has shown that oncolytic adenoviruses induce autophagy-related immunogenic cell death (ICD), which enhances the antitumor immune response by inducing the activation of danger signal molecules and thus represents a novel cancer immunotherapy. Understanding the precise role of oncolytic adenovirus-induced autophagy and ICD could enhance the therapeutic potential of oncolytic adenoviral therapy for treating various cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic adenovirus; autophagy; immunogenic cell death oncolytic adenovirus; autophagy; immunogenic cell death

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tazawa, H.; Kuroda, S.; Hasei, J.; Kagawa, S.; Fujiwara, T. Impact of Autophagy in Oncolytic Adenoviral Therapy for Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1479.

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