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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1117;

Mammalian Metallothionein-3: New Functional and Structural Insights

Department of Chemistry B, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 W Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080-3021, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nick Hadjiliadis
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallothioneins in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Recent Developments)
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Metallothionein-3 (MT-3), a member of the mammalian metallothionein (MT) family, is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). MT-3 possesses a unique neuronal growth inhibitory activity, and the levels of this intra- and extracellularly occurring metalloprotein are markedly diminished in the brain of patients affected by a number of metal-linked neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In these pathologies, the redox cycling of copper, accompanied by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a key role in the neuronal toxicity. Although MT-3 shares the metal-thiolate clusters with the well-characterized MT-1 and MT-2, it shows distinct biological, structural and chemical properties. Owing to its anti-oxidant properties and modulator function not only for Zn, but also for Cu in the extra- and intracellular space, MT-3, but not MT-1/MT-2, protects neuronal cells from the toxicity of various Cu(II)-bound amyloids. In recent years, the roles of zinc dynamics and MT-3 function in neurodegeneration are slowly emerging. This short review focuses on the recent developments regarding the chemistry and biology of MT-3. View Full-Text
Keywords: metallothionein-3; copper; zinc; metal-thiolate clusters; neurodegeneration; reactive oxygen species; metal homeostasis; amyloid metallothionein-3; copper; zinc; metal-thiolate clusters; neurodegeneration; reactive oxygen species; metal homeostasis; amyloid

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Vašák, M.; Meloni, G. Mammalian Metallothionein-3: New Functional and Structural Insights. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1117.

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