Next Article in Journal
Stability Profiles and Therapeutic Effect of Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Chemically Coupled to O-Quaternary Chitosan Derivatives against Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis
Next Article in Special Issue
Personalized Medicine: New Perspectives for the Diagnosis and the Treatment of Renal Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Mammalian Metallothionein-3: New Functional and Structural Insights
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chronic Kidney Disease and Exposure to Nephrotoxic Metals
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1120;

Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease

Division of Nephrology, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China
Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alan Parrish
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
Full-Text   |   PDF [721 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]   |  


Renal disease caused by cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) occurs when cholesterol crystals become lodged in small renal arteries after small pieces of atheromatous plaques break off from the aorta or renal arteries and shower the downstream vascular bed. CCE is a multisystemic disease but kidneys are particularly vulnerable to atheroembolic disease, which can cause an acute, subacute, or chronic decline in renal function. This life-threatening disease may be underdiagnosed and overlooked as a cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with advanced atherosclerosis. CCE can result from vascular surgery, angiography, or administration of anticoagulants. Atheroembolic renal disease has various clinical features that resemble those found in other kidney disorders and systemic diseases. It is commonly misdiagnosed in clinic, but confirmed by characteristic renal biopsy findings. Therapeutic options are limited, and prognosis is considered to be poor. Expanding knowledge of atheroembolic renal disease due to CCE opens perspectives for recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of this cause of progressive renal insufficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol crystal embolism; atheroembolic renal disease; chronic kidney disease cholesterol crystal embolism; atheroembolic renal disease; chronic kidney disease

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Bayliss, G.; Zhuang, S. Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1120.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top