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Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Division of Nephrology, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China
2
Department of Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alan Parrish
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061120
Received: 15 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
Renal disease caused by cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) occurs when cholesterol crystals become lodged in small renal arteries after small pieces of atheromatous plaques break off from the aorta or renal arteries and shower the downstream vascular bed. CCE is a multisystemic disease but kidneys are particularly vulnerable to atheroembolic disease, which can cause an acute, subacute, or chronic decline in renal function. This life-threatening disease may be underdiagnosed and overlooked as a cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with advanced atherosclerosis. CCE can result from vascular surgery, angiography, or administration of anticoagulants. Atheroembolic renal disease has various clinical features that resemble those found in other kidney disorders and systemic diseases. It is commonly misdiagnosed in clinic, but confirmed by characteristic renal biopsy findings. Therapeutic options are limited, and prognosis is considered to be poor. Expanding knowledge of atheroembolic renal disease due to CCE opens perspectives for recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of this cause of progressive renal insufficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol crystal embolism; atheroembolic renal disease; chronic kidney disease cholesterol crystal embolism; atheroembolic renal disease; chronic kidney disease
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Li, X.; Bayliss, G.; Zhuang, S. Cholesterol Crystal Embolism and Chronic Kidney Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1120.

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