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Analysis of DNA Methylation Status in Bodily Fluids for Early Detection of Cancer

Department of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0374, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040735
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 26 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Biopsy for Clinical Application)
Epigenetic alterations by promoter DNA hypermethylation and gene silencing in cancer have been reported over the past few decades. DNA hypermethylation has great potential to serve as a screening marker, a prognostic marker, and a therapeutic surveillance marker in cancer clinics. Some bodily fluids, such as stool or urine, were obtainable without any invasion to the body. Thus, such bodily fluids were suitable samples for high throughput cancer surveillance. Analyzing the methylation status of bodily fluids around the cancer tissue may, additionally, lead to the early detection of cancer, because several genes in cancer tissues are reported to be cancer-specifically hypermethylated. Recently, several studies that analyzed the methylation status of DNA in bodily fluids were conducted, and some of the results have potential for future development and further clinical use. In fact, a stool DNA test was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the screening of colorectal cancer. Another promising methylation marker has been identified in various bodily fluids for several cancers. We reviewed studies that analyzed DNA methylation in bodily fluids as a less-invasive cancer screening. View Full-Text
Keywords: methylation; cancer; screening; bodily fluid methylation; cancer; screening; bodily fluid
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Yokoi, K.; Yamashita, K.; Watanabe, M. Analysis of DNA Methylation Status in Bodily Fluids for Early Detection of Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 735.

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