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Open AccessArticle

Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Beeswax–Starch Food-Grade Nanoemulsions Incorporating Natural Antimicrobials

DIPA, PROPAC, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro. C.U., Cerro de las Campanas s/n, Col. Las Campanas, Querétaro 76010, Qro., Mexico
Department of Food Technology, University of Lleida–Agrotecnio Center, Avda. Alcalde Rovira Roure, 191, E-25198 Lleida, Spain
Instituto Tecnológico “José Mario Molina Pasquel y Henríquez”–Unidad Académica Lagos de Moreno, Libramiento Tecnológico No. 5000, Col. Portugalejo de los Romanes, C.P., Lagos de Moreno 47480, Jalisco, Mexico
Facultad de Química, Área de Reología de Materiales Complejos, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Interior s/n, CDMX 04510, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2712;
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 10 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Biomaterials for Food Edible Coatings)
Nanoemulsions are feasible delivery systems of lipophilic compounds, showing potential as edible coatings with enhanced functional properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of emulsifier type (stearic acid (SA), Tween 80 (T80) or Tween 80/Span 60 (T80/S60)) and emulsification process (homogenization, ultrasound or microfluidization) on nanoemulsion formation based on oxidized corn starch, beeswax (BW) and natural antimicrobials (lauric arginate and natamycin). The response variables were physicochemical properties, rheological behavior, wettability and antimicrobial activity of BW–starch nanoemulsions (BW–SN). The BW–SN emulsified using T80 and microfluidized showed the lowest droplet size (77.6 ± 6.2 nm), a polydispersion index of 0.4 ± 0.0 and whiteness index (WI) of 31.8 ± 0.8. This BW–SN exhibited a more negative ζ-potential: −36 ± 4 mV, and Newtonian flow behavior, indicating great stability. BW–SN antimicrobial activity was not affected by microfluidization nor the presence of T80, showing inhibition of the deteriorative fungi R. stolonifer, C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea, and the pathogenic bacterium S. Saintpaul. In addition, regardless of emulsifier type and emulsification process, BW–SN applied on the tomato surface exhibited low contact angles (38.5° to 48.6°), resulting in efficient wettability (−7.0 mN/m to −8.9 mN/m). These nanoemulsions may be useful to produce edible coatings to preserve fresh-produce quality and safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; oxidized corn starch; beeswax; antimicrobials nanoemulsion; oxidized corn starch; beeswax; antimicrobials
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Arredondo-Ochoa, T.; García-Almendárez, B.E.; Escamilla-García, M.; Martín-Belloso, O.; Rossi-Márquez, G.; Medina-Torres, L.; Regalado-González, C. Physicochemical and Antimicrobial Characterization of Beeswax–Starch Food-Grade Nanoemulsions Incorporating Natural Antimicrobials. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2712.

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