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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18122664

Elevation of Serum APE1/Ref-1 in Experimental Murine Myocarditis

1
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, 282 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 35015, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun 28024, Korea
3
Department of Physiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, 266 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon 35015, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease 2018)
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Abstract

Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium that causes cardiogenic shock and death. However, endomyocardial biopsy that is, the gold standard for a diagnosis is limited. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein, which is involved in DNA-based excision repair pathway, and in redox signaling, its changes are observed in various cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and coronary artery disease. We analyzed serum APE1/Ref-1 in experimental murine myocarditis. To induce myocarditis, coxsackievirus B3 was injected intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice. The serum APE1/Ref-1, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin I were measured. The histology and virus titers measurements were performed. The troponin I and inflammation were significantly elevated at day 3, peaked to day 7 and decreased at day 10. The NT-proBNP and virus titers were significantly peaked at day 3, and dropped at day 7 and 10. The serum APE1/Ref-1 was gradually raised and its elevation is still maintained until a later time, namely day 10. Also, its level was positively correlated with myocardial inflammation, reflecting severity of myocardial injury. We suggest that serum APE1/Ref-1 can be used to assess for myocardial injury in viral myocarditis without endomyocardial biopsy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ape1 protein; mouse; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1(APE1/Ref-1); biomarkers; heart failure; myocarditis; Ref-1 protein; mouse; coxsackievirus Ape1 protein; mouse; apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1(APE1/Ref-1); biomarkers; heart failure; myocarditis; Ref-1 protein; mouse; coxsackievirus
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Jin, S.-A.; Lim, B.-K.; Seo, H.J.; Kim, S.K.; Ahn, K.T.; Jeon, B.H.; Jeong, J.-O. Elevation of Serum APE1/Ref-1 in Experimental Murine Myocarditis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2664.

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