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Open AccessArticle

Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, CZ-616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Faculty of Sports Studies, University Sports Centre, Masaryk University, Komenskeho namesti 2, CZ-662 43 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030377
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Herein, we present a study focused on the determination of the influence of long-distance (53 km) bicycle riding on levels of chosen biochemical urinary and serum prostate cancer (PCa) biomarkers total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and sarcosine. Fourteen healthy participants with no evidence of prostate diseases, in the age range from 49–57 years with a median of 52 years, underwent physical exercise (mean race time of 150 ± 20 min, elevation increase of 472 m) and pre- and post-ride blood/urine sampling. It was found that bicycle riding resulted in elevated serum uric acid (p = 0.001, median 271.76 vs. 308.44 µmol/L pre- and post-ride, respectively), lactate (p = 0.01, median 2.98 vs. 4.8 mmol/L) and C-reactive protein (p = 0.01, 0.0–0.01 mg/L). It is noteworthy that our work supports the studies demonstrating an increased PSA after mechanical manipulation of the prostate. The subjects exhibited either significantly higher post-ride tPSA (p = 0.002, median 0.69 vs. 1.1 ng/mL pre- and post-ride, respectively) and fPSA (p = 0.028, median 0.25 vs. 0.35 ng/mL). Contrary to that, sarcosine levels were not significantly affected by physical exercise (p = 0.20, median 1.64 vs. 1.92 µmol/mL for serum sarcosine, and p = 0.15, median 0.02 µmol/mmol of creatinine vs. 0.01 µmol/mmol of creatinine for urinary sarcosine). Taken together, our pilot study provides the first evidence that the potential biomarker of PCa—sarcosine does not have a drawback by means of a bicycle riding-induced false positivity, as was shown in the case of PSA. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactate; metabolism; physical exercise; prostate-specific antigen; sarcosine lactate; metabolism; physical exercise; prostate-specific antigen; sarcosine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Heger, Z.; Gumulec, J.; Ondrak, A.; Skoda, J.; Zitka, Z.; Cernei, N.; Masarik, M.; Zitka, O.; Adam, V. Influence of Long-Distance Bicycle Riding on Serum/Urinary Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 377.

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