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Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

Chemistry Department, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, P.O. Box 2329, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Chemistry Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Farmer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 8569-8590;
Received: 14 March 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry and the Biorefinery)
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Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. View Full-Text
Keywords: cashew nut shell liquid; anacardic acid; antibacterial; antitumor; antioxidant cashew nut shell liquid; anacardic acid; antibacterial; antitumor; antioxidant

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Hamad, F.B.; Mubofu, E.B. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 8569-8590.

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