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Open AccessArticle

Distinct Roles of Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ciona Sperm

Shimoda Marine Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Shimoda 5-10-1, Shizuoka 415-0025, Japan
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 13192-13208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150813192
Received: 22 April 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Sperm-Egg Interaction)
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) is a key enzyme that synthesizes cyclic AMP (cAMP) at the onset of the signaling pathway to activate sperm motility. Here, we showed that both transmembrane AC (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) are distinctly involved in the regulation of sperm motility in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. A tmAC inhibitor blocked both cAMP synthesis and the activation of sperm motility induced by the egg factor sperm activating and attracting factor (SAAF), as well as those induced by theophylline, an inhibitor of phoshodiesterase. It also significantly inhibited cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of a set of proteins at motility activation. On the other hand, a sAC inhibitor does not affect on SAAF-induced transient increase of cAMP, motility activation or protein phosphorylation, but it reduced swimming velocity to half in theophylline-induced sperm. A sAC inhibitor KH-7 induced circular swimming trajectory with smaller diameter and significantly suppressed chemotaxis of sperm to SAAF. These results suggest that tmAC is involved in the basic mechanism for motility activation through cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, whereas sAC plays distinct roles in increase of flagellar beat frequency and in the Ca2+-dependent chemotactic movement of sperm. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; sperm chemotaxis; fertilization; protein kinase; protein phosphorylation calcium; sperm chemotaxis; fertilization; protein kinase; protein phosphorylation
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Shiba, K.; Inaba, K. Distinct Roles of Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases in the Regulation of Flagellar Motility in Ciona Sperm. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 13192-13208.

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