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Correction published on 22 March 2013, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(3), 6516-6517.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(8), 10594-10607;

Antisense Oligonucleotide Against Clusterin Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invasion Through Transcriptional Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and E-Cadherin

Department of General Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China
Department of Endodontics, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
Department of Oncology, the Affiliated Hospital of medical college, QingDao University, QingDao 266003, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 20 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Organ-Specific Toxicity)
Full-Text   |   PDF [444 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Secreted clusterin (sCLU) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue, and its overexpression in HCC cells increases cell migration and the formation of liver metastatic tumor nodules in vivo. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sCLU plays a role in the invasiveness of human HCC and may be associated with its metastatic spread. HCCLM3, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, was transiently transfected with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against sCLU (OGX-011). HepG2 liver hepatocellular cells were transiently transfected with the pc.DNA3.1-sCLU plasmid to overexpress sCLU, and subsequently evaluated for effects on invasion and the expression of molecules involved in invasion. We observed that suppression of the sCLU gene significantly reduced the invasive capability of the highly invasive HCCLM3 cells, and vice versa in the low invasive HepG2 cell line. The results revealed that knockdown of sCLU by OGX-011 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene transcription. Overexpression of sCLU by transfection with pc.DNA3.1-sCLU significantly decreased the expression of E-cadherin and increased MMP-2 gene transcription. These data were further verified by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis. A significant reduction in MMP-2 expression and an increase in E-cadherin expression in sCLU-knockdown HCCLM3 cells were observed, as well as a significant increase in MMP-2 expression and a decrease in E-cadherin expression in HepG2 cells overexpressing sCLU. These data indicate a role for sCLU in augmenting MMP-2 transcription and decreasing E-cadherin expression. Our data show the involvement of sCLU in human HCC invasion, and demonstrate that silencing sCLU gene expression inhibits the invasion of human HCC cells by inhibiting MMP-2 expression and promoting E-cadherin expression. Thus, OGX-011 could be an effective therapeutic agent for HCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis; clusterin hepatocellular carcinoma; metastasis; clusterin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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  • Correction

    A correction was published on 2 April 2013 (PDF, 19 KB)

    The original version of the paper reports that “OGX-011 is a second generation 21-mer oligonucleotide with a 20-O-(2-methoxy)-ethyl modification, generously provided by OncoGenex Technologies (OncoGenex, Vancouver, Canada)” [1] (p. 10602). OGX-011 was not provided by OncoGenex Technologies directly. Therefore, we would like to correct the wording to: “OGX-011 was obtained without the benefit of an agreement with OncoGenex, or The University British Columbia, or any other party”. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to the readers of this journal.


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Chen, D.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, K.; Jiao, X.; Yan, B.; Liang, J. Antisense Oligonucleotide Against Clusterin Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invasion Through Transcriptional Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and E-Cadherin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10594-10607.

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