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Article

Kinetic Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides in Mixed Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates

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Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas AM University at Qatar, Al Rayyan 5270, Qatar
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Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Darul Ridzuan 32610, Perak, Malaysia
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CO2 Research Centre (CO2RES), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
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PETRONAS Research Sdn Bhd, Kawasan Institusi Bangi, Lot 3288 3289 Off Jalan Ayer Itam, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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Mechanical Engineering Department, King Abdulaziz University of Science and Technology, Jeddah 80200, Saudi Arabia
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Petroleum Engineering Department, Texas AM University at Qatar, Al Rayyan 5270, Qatar
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School of Computing, Engineering and Digital Technologies, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nobuo Maeda, Zhiyuan Wang and Xiaodong Shen
Molecules 2021, 26(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020275
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 22 December 2020 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrates: Formation, Structures, and Properties)
This study evaluates the kinetic hydrate inhibition (KHI) performance of four quaternary ammonium hydroxides (QAH) on mixed CH4 + CO2 hydrate systems. The studied QAHs are; tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPrAOH). The test was performed in a high-pressure hydrate reactor at temperatures of 274.0 K and 277.0 K, and a concentration of 1 wt.% using the isochoric cooling method. The kinetics results suggest that all the QAHs potentially delayed mixed CH4 + CO2 hydrates formation due to their steric hindrance abilities. The presence of QAHs reduced hydrate formation risk than the conventional hydrate inhibitor, PVP, at higher subcooling conditions. The findings indicate that increasing QAHs alkyl chain lengths increase their kinetic hydrate inhibition efficacies due to better surface adsorption abilities. QAHs with longer chain lengths have lesser amounts of solute particles to prevent hydrate formation. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to current efforts to control gas hydrate formation in offshore petroleum pipelines. View Full-Text
Keywords: kinetic hydrate inhibition; ammonium hydroxides; formation rate; induction time; mixed gas hydrates kinetic hydrate inhibition; ammonium hydroxides; formation rate; induction time; mixed gas hydrates
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, M.S.; Bavoh, C.B.; Foo, K.S.; Shariff, A.M.; Kassim, Z.; Othman, N.A.B.; Lal, B.; Ahmed, I.; Rahman, M.A.; Gomari, S.R. Kinetic Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides in Mixed Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates. Molecules 2021, 26, 275. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020275

AMA Style

Khan MS, Bavoh CB, Foo KS, Shariff AM, Kassim Z, Othman NAB, Lal B, Ahmed I, Rahman MA, Gomari SR. Kinetic Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides in Mixed Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates. Molecules. 2021; 26(2):275. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020275

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Muhammad S., Cornelius B. Bavoh, Khor S. Foo, Azmi M. Shariff, Zamzila Kassim, Nurzatil A.B. Othman, Bhajan Lal, Iqbal Ahmed, Mohammad A. Rahman, and Sina R. Gomari 2021. "Kinetic Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides in Mixed Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates" Molecules 26, no. 2: 275. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020275

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