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Review

Dietary Flavonoids: Cardioprotective Potential with Antioxidant Effects and Their Pharmacokinetic, Toxicological and Therapeutic Concerns

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Al Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
2
Life Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati 781035, Assam, India
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215, Jharkhand, India
4
University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India
5
Food Technology Unit, Centre for Research and Assistance in Technology and Design of Jalisco State A.C., Camino Arenero 1227, El Bajío del Arenal, Zapopan 45019, Jalisco, Mexico
6
Rasiklal M. Dhariwal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Chinchwad, Pune 411019, Maharashtra, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe
Molecules 2021, 26(13), 4021; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134021
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 22 June 2021 / Accepted: 23 June 2021 / Published: 30 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Their Disease Prevention and Treatment Potential 2021)
Flavonoids comprise a large group of structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds of plant origin and are abundantly found in human diet such as fruits, vegetables, grains, tea, dairy products, red wine, etc. Major classes of flavonoids include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, and chalcones. Owing to their potential health benefits and medicinal significance, flavonoids are now considered as an indispensable component in a variety of medicinal, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic preparations. Moreover, flavonoids play a significant role in preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which could be mainly due to their antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and antithrombotic effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/in vivo evidence of antioxidant effects supports the cardioprotective function of dietary flavonoids. Further, the inhibition of LDL oxidation and platelet aggregation following regular consumption of food containing flavonoids and moderate consumption of red wine might protect against atherosclerosis and thrombosis. One study suggests that daily intake of 100 mg of flavonoids through the diet may reduce the risk of developing morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) by approximately 10%. This review summarizes dietary flavonoids with their sources and potential health implications in CVDs including various redox-active cardioprotective (molecular) mechanisms with antioxidant effects. Pharmacokinetic (oral bioavailability, drug metabolism), toxicological, and therapeutic aspects of dietary flavonoids are also addressed herein with future directions for the discovery and development of useful drug candidates/therapeutic molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary flavonoids; cardioprotective effects; ROS scavenging; myocardial dysfunction; bioavailability and drug metabolism; toxicity; drug discovery dietary flavonoids; cardioprotective effects; ROS scavenging; myocardial dysfunction; bioavailability and drug metabolism; toxicity; drug discovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, J.; Deb, P.K.; Priya, S.; Medina, K.D.; Devi, R.; Walode, S.G.; Rudrapal, M. Dietary Flavonoids: Cardioprotective Potential with Antioxidant Effects and Their Pharmacokinetic, Toxicological and Therapeutic Concerns. Molecules 2021, 26, 4021. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134021

AMA Style

Khan J, Deb PK, Priya S, Medina KD, Devi R, Walode SG, Rudrapal M. Dietary Flavonoids: Cardioprotective Potential with Antioxidant Effects and Their Pharmacokinetic, Toxicological and Therapeutic Concerns. Molecules. 2021; 26(13):4021. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Johra, Prashanta Kumar Deb, Somi Priya, Karla Damián Medina, Rajlakshmi Devi, Sanjay G. Walode, and Mithun Rudrapal. 2021. "Dietary Flavonoids: Cardioprotective Potential with Antioxidant Effects and Their Pharmacokinetic, Toxicological and Therapeutic Concerns" Molecules 26, no. 13: 4021. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26134021

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