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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Flavonoids as Neuroexocytosis Regulators

1
Institute of Biomolecule Control and Institute of Biologics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi, Korea
2
Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi, Korea
3
Interdisciplinary Program in BioCosmetics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi, Korea
4
C&I lab, Kolmar Korea Co., Ltd., Seoul 06792, Korea
5
Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Gyeonggi, Korea
6
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Gyeonggi, Korea
7
Department of Biomechatronic Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1829; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081829
Received: 18 March 2020 / Revised: 12 April 2020 / Accepted: 15 April 2020 / Published: 17 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) is known as a potential source of bioactive flavonoids, such as quercetin, arresting the neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-zippering. Here, the GBL flavonoids were isolated in two different manners and then examined for their bioactivity, physicochemical stability, and biocompatibility. The majority of flavonoids in the non-hydrolyzed and acidolyzed isolates, termed non-hydrolyzed isolate (NI) and acidolyzed isolate (AI) hereafter, were rich in flavonol glycosides and aglycones, respectively. Glycosidic/aglyconic quercetin and kaempferol were abundant in both NI and AI, whereas a little of apigenin, luteolin, and isorhamnetin were found in AI. NI was more thermostable in all pH ranges than quercetin, kaempferol, and AI. NI and AI both inhibited neurotransmitter release from differentiated neuronal PC-12 cells. NI and AI showed 1/2–1/3 lower EC50/CC50 values than quercetin and kaempferol. The NI and AI exhibited no toxicity assessed by the tests on chorioallantoic membranes of hen’s eggs, removing toxicological concerns of irritation potential. Moreover, GBL isolates, particularly AI, showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in the use below the CC50 levels. Taken together, these results suggest that GBL isolates that are rich in antioxidant flavonoids are effective anti-neuroexocytotic agents with high stability and low toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; bioactivity; flavonoids; Ginkgo biloba leaf isolate; neurotransmission inhibition; physicochemical stability; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity biocompatibility; bioactivity; flavonoids; Ginkgo biloba leaf isolate; neurotransmission inhibition; physicochemical stability; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ban, C.; Park, J.-B.; Cho, S.; Kim, H.R.; Kim, Y.J.; Bae, H.; Kim, C.; Kang, H.; Jang, D.; Shin, Y.S.; Kim, D.-O.; Kim, H.; Kweon, D.-H. Characterization of Ginkgo biloba Leaf Flavonoids as Neuroexocytosis Regulators. Molecules 2020, 25, 1829.

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