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Open AccessArticle

Natural Compounds Rosmarinic Acid and Carvacrol Counteract Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress

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Department of Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Department of Biochemistry, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Institute of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Institute of Pharmaceutical Technologies, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, 61242 Brno, Czech Republic
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Department of Drug Technology and Social Pharmacy, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Locatelli
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1807; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081807
Received: 3 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry II)
Aluminum accumulation, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in erythrocytes and brain and liver homogenates of BALB/c mice treated with Al3+ (7.5 mg/kg/day (0.15 LD50) as AlCl3 (37.08 mg/kg/day), whereas HCl (30.41 mg/kg/day) was used as Cl control, the treatments were performed for 21 days, i.p., in the presence and absence of rosmarinic acid (0.2805 mg/kg/day (0.05 LD50), 21 days, i.g.) or carvacrol (0.0405 mg/kg/day (0.05 LD50), 21 days, i.g.). The treatment with AlCl3 increased GSH concentration in erythrocytes only slightly and had no effect on brain and liver homogenates. Rosmarinic acid and carvacrol strongly increased GSH concentration in erythrocytes but decreased it in brain and liver homogenates. However, AlCl3 treatment led to Al accumulation in mice blood, brain, and liver and induced oxidative stress, assessed based on MDA concentration in the brain and liver. Both rosmarinic acid and carvacrol were able to counteract the negative Al effect by decreasing its accumulation and protecting tissues from lipid peroxidation. AlCl3 treatment increased CAT activity in mice brain and liver homogenates, whereas the administration of either rosmarinic acid or carvacrol alone or in combination with AlCl3 had no significant effect on CAT activity. SOD activity remained unchanged after all the treatments in our study. We propose that natural herbal phenolic compounds rosmarinic acid and carvacrol could be used to protect brain and liver against aluminum induced oxidative stress leading to lipid peroxidation. View Full-Text
Keywords: aluminum toxicity; rosmarinic acid; carvacrol; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; brain; liver aluminum toxicity; rosmarinic acid; carvacrol; oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; brain; liver
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Baranauskaite, J.; Sadauskiene, I.; Liekis, A.; Kasauskas, A.; Lazauskas, R.; Zlabiene, U.; Masteikova, R.; Kopustinskiene, D.M.; Bernatoniene, J. Natural Compounds Rosmarinic Acid and Carvacrol Counteract Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress. Molecules 2020, 25, 1807.

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