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Open AccessArticle

Elicitation-Based Method for Increasing the Production of Antioxidant and Bactericidal Phenolic Compounds in Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis Tissue

1
Department of Botany, Physiology and Plant Protection, Faculty of Biotechnology and Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 29 Listopada 54, 31-425, Krakow, Poland
2
Institute of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, Trzy Lipy 3, 80-172 Gdansk, Poland
3
Intercollegiate Faculty of Biotechnology UG and MUG, Laboratory of Biologically Active Compounds, University of Gdansk, Abrahama 58, 80-307 Gdansk, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Halina Ekiert and Agnieszka Szopa
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081794
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 12 April 2020 / Published: 14 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Natural Products)
The carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis (Venus flytrap) is a widely known medical herb, capable of producing various phenolic compounds known for their strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In the pharmaceutical industry, Venus flytrap is grown in tissue cultures, as the natural population of D. muscipula is very limited. Here, we describe an improved method to increase the quantity and quality of phenolic compounds produced in D. muscipula. This is achieved by combining biotic elicitation (using Cronobacter sakazakii bacteria lysate) of D. muscipula cultured with rotary shaking (hydromechanical stress), which we describe here for the first time. The antibacterial activity and the antioxidant properties of the obtained compounds were studied on two antibiotic-resistant human pathogenic bacteria. The proposed plant culture conditions resulted in an increase in fresh weight, as well as a higher total phenolic content, in comparison to traditional tissue cultures on agar-solidified medium. With the use of high-performance liquid chromatography, we demonstrated that the described elicitation strategy leads to an increased synthesis of myricetin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid and plumbagin in D. muscipula tissue. We also found that a higher level of antioxidant activity, exhibited by the plant extract, corresponded with its higher phenylpropanoid content. The bactericidal activity of the extract against Staphylococcus aureus was dependent on the duration of plant culture under described elicitation conditions, whereas neither elicitation condition (duration or elicitor concentration) seemed relevant for the bactericidal activity of the extract towards Escherichia coli. This suggest that Gram-negative bacteria are less sensitive to compounds derived from Venus flytrap tissue. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic-resistant bacteria; biotic elicitation; Cronobacter sakazakii; DPPH; Escherichia coli; plant secondary metabolites; Staphylococcus aureus; Venus Flytrap antibiotic-resistant bacteria; biotic elicitation; Cronobacter sakazakii; DPPH; Escherichia coli; plant secondary metabolites; Staphylococcus aureus; Venus Flytrap
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makowski, W.; Tokarz, K.M.; Tokarz, B.; Banasiuk, R.; Witek, K.; Królicka, A. Elicitation-Based Method for Increasing the Production of Antioxidant and Bactericidal Phenolic Compounds in Dionaea muscipula J. Ellis Tissue. Molecules 2020, 25, 1794.

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