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Open AccessArticle

Ruthenium-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes as Mesocatalysts for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis

1
Gubkin University, 65 Leninsky Prosp., Moscow 119991, Russia
2
N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, 47 Leninsky Prosp, Moscow 119991, Russia
3
Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University, 505 Tech Drive, Ruston, LA 71272, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Serena Riela and Marina Massaro
Molecules 2020, 25(8), 1764; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25081764
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 6 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research Advance in the Halloysite Nanotubes Field)
Halloysite aluminosilicate nanotubes loaded with ruthenium particles were used as reactors for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. To load ruthenium inside clay, selective modification of the external surface with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, urea, or acetone azine was performed. Reduction of materials in a flow of hydrogen at 400 °C resulted in catalysts loaded with 2 wt.% of 3.5 nm Ru particles, densely packed inside the tubes. Catalysts were characterized by N2-adsorption, temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction analysis. We concluded that the total acidity and specific morphology of reactors were the major factors influencing activity and selectivity toward CH4, C2–4, and C5+ hydrocarbons in the Fischer–Tropsch process. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for ruthenium binding gave a methanation catalyst with ca. 50% selectivity to methane and C2–4. Urea-modified halloysite resulted in the Ru-nanoreactors with high selectivity to valuable C5+ hydrocarbons containing few olefins and a high number of heavy fractions (α = 0.87). Modification with acetone azine gave the slightly higher CO conversion rate close to 19% and highest selectivity in C5+ products. Using a halloysite tube with a 10–20-nm lumen decreased the diffusion limitation and helped to produce high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. The extremely small C2–C4 fraction obtained from the urea- and azine-modified sample was not reachable for non-templated Ru-nanoparticles. Dense packing of Ru nanoparticles increased the contact time of olefins and their reabsorption, producing higher amounts of C5+ hydrocarbons. Loading of Ru inside the nanoclay increased the particle stability and prevented their aggregation under reaction conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: halloysite; nanotube; ruthenium; nanoparticle; Fischer–Tropsch; hydrocarbons; alkanes; catalysis halloysite; nanotube; ruthenium; nanoparticle; Fischer–Tropsch; hydrocarbons; alkanes; catalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stavitskaya, A.; Mazurova, K.; Kotelev, M.; Eliseev, O.; Gushchin, P.; Glotov, A.; Kazantsev, R.; Vinokurov, V.; Lvov, Y. Ruthenium-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes as Mesocatalysts for Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis. Molecules 2020, 25, 1764.

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