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Open AccessArticle

Facile Fabrication of Natural Polyelectrolyte-Nanoclay Composites: Halloysite Nanotubes, Nucleotides and DNA Study

1
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kreml uramı 18, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan 420008, Russia
2
Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze pad 17, 90128 Palermo, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Krzysztof Pielichowski and Teofil Jesionowski
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3557; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153557
Received: 11 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 31 July 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Research Advance in the Halloysite Nanotubes Field)
Complexation of biopolymers with halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) can greatly affect their applicability as materials building blocks. Here we have performed a systematic investigation of fabrication of halloysite nanotubes complexes with nucleotides and genomic DNA. The binding of DNA and various nucleotide species (polyAU, UMP Na2, ADP Na3, dATP Na, AMP, uridine, ATP Mg) by halloysite nanotubes was tested using UV-spectroscopy. The study revealed that binding of different nucleotides to the nanoclay varied but was low both in the presence and absence of MgCl2, while MgCl2 facilitated significantly the binding of longer molecules such as DNA and polyAU. Modification of the nanotubes with DNA and nucleotide species was further confirmed by measurements of ζ-potentials. DNA-Mg-modified nanotubes were characterized using transmission electron (TEM), atomic force (AFM) and hyperspectral microscopies. Thermogravimetric analysis corroborated the sorption of DNA by the nanotubes, and the presence of DNA on the nanotube surface was indicated by changes in the surface adhesion force measured by AFM. DNA bound by halloysite in the presence of MgCl2 could be partially released after addition of phosphate buffered saline. DNA binding and release from halloysite nanotubes was tested in the range of MgCl2 concentrations (10–100 mM). Even low MgCl2 concentrations significantly increased DNA sorption to halloysite, and the binding was leveled off at about 60 mM. DNA-Mg-modified halloysite nanotubes were used for obtaining a regular pattern on a glass surface by evaporation induced self-assembly process. The obtained spiral-like pattern was highly stable and resisted dissolution after water addition. Our results encompassing modification of non-toxic clay nanotubes with a natural polyanion DNA will find applications for construction of gene delivery vehicles and for halloysite self-assembly on various surfaces (such as skin or hair). View Full-Text
Keywords: clay/polymer composites; halloysite nanotubes; nanoclay; DNA; nucleotide; nanoclay self-assembly clay/polymer composites; halloysite nanotubes; nanoclay; DNA; nucleotide; nanoclay self-assembly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Batasheva, S.; Kryuchkova, M.; Fakhrullin, R.; Cavallaro, G.; Lazzara, G.; Akhatova, F.; Nigamatzyanova, L.; Evtugyn, V.; Rozhina, E.; Fakhrullin, R. Facile Fabrication of Natural Polyelectrolyte-Nanoclay Composites: Halloysite Nanotubes, Nucleotides and DNA Study. Molecules 2020, 25, 3557. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153557

AMA Style

Batasheva S, Kryuchkova M, Fakhrullin R, Cavallaro G, Lazzara G, Akhatova F, Nigamatzyanova L, Evtugyn V, Rozhina E, Fakhrullin R. Facile Fabrication of Natural Polyelectrolyte-Nanoclay Composites: Halloysite Nanotubes, Nucleotides and DNA Study. Molecules. 2020; 25(15):3557. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153557

Chicago/Turabian Style

Batasheva, Svetlana; Kryuchkova, Marina; Fakhrullin, Ramil; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Akhatova, Farida; Nigamatzyanova, Läysän; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Rozhina, Elvira; Fakhrullin, Rawil. 2020. "Facile Fabrication of Natural Polyelectrolyte-Nanoclay Composites: Halloysite Nanotubes, Nucleotides and DNA Study" Molecules 25, no. 15: 3557. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153557

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