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Open AccessArticle

Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Food and Beverage in Brazil

1
Laboratory of Isotope Ecology, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário, 303, São Dimas, Piracicaba CEP 13416-000, SP, Brazil
2
Ecology Department, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, Asa Norte, Brasília CEP 70910-900, Brazil
3
National Institute of Criminalistics, Federal Police, Asa Sul, Brasília CEP 70610-200, Brazil
4
Department of Statistics and Informatics, Rural Federal University of Pernambuco, R. Manuel de Medeiros, 35, Dois Irmãos, Recife CEP 52171-050, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nives Ogrinc and Federica Camin
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1457; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061457 (registering DOI)
Received: 27 January 2020 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
Several previous studies on targeted food items using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in Brazil have revealed that many of the items investigated are adulterated; mislabeled or even fraud. Here, we present the first Brazilian isotopic baseline assessment that can be used not only in future forensic cases involving food authenticity, but also in human forensic anthropology studies. The δ13C and δ15N were determined in 1245 food items and 374 beverages; most of them made in Brazil. The average δ13C and δ15N of C3 plants were −26.7 ± 1.5‰, and 3.9 ± 3.9‰, respectively, while the average δ13C and δ15N of C4 plants were −11.5 ± 0.8‰ and 4.6 ± 2.6‰, respectively. The δ13C and δ15N of plant-based processed foods were −21.8 ± 4.8‰ and 3.9 ± 2.7‰, respectively. The average δ13C and δ15N of meat, including beef, poultry, pork and lamb were -16.6 ± 4.7‰, and 5.2 ± 2.6‰, respectively, while the δ13C and δ15N of animal-based processed foods were −17.9 ± 3.3‰ and 3.3 ± 3.5‰, respectively. The average δ13C of beverages, including beer and wine was −22.5 ± 3.1‰. We verified that C-C4 constitutes a large proportion of fresh meat, dairy products, as well as animal and plant-based processed foods. The reasons behind this high proportion will be addressed in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: processed foods; staple foods; photosynthesis metabolism; isotopes; Brazil processed foods; staple foods; photosynthesis metabolism; isotopes; Brazil
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Martinelli, L.A.; Nardoto, G.B.; Perez, M.A.Z.; Junior, G.A.; Fracassi, F.C.; Oliveira, J.G.G.; Ottani, I.S.; Lima, S.H.; Mazzi, E.A.; Gomes, T.F.; Soltangheisi, A.; Filho, A.L.A.; Mariano, E.; Costa, F.J.V.; Duarte-Neto, P.J.; Moreira, M.Z.; Camargo, P.B. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Food and Beverage in Brazil. Molecules 2020, 25, 1457.

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