Next Article in Journal
Interaction of Catechins with Human Erythrocytes
Previous Article in Journal
Antinociceptive Effect of Hinokinin and Kaurenoic Acid Isolated from Aristolochia odoratissima L.
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Middle Lamella of Plant Fibers Used as Composite Reinforcement: Investigation by Atomic Force Microscopy
Open AccessArticle

Underutilized Agricultural Co-Product as a Sustainable Biofiller for Polyamide 6,6: Effect of Carbonization Temperature

1
Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pietro Russo
Molecules 2020, 25(6), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25061455 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Natural Fiber Composites and Their Interfacial Adhesion)
Polyamide 6,6 (PA66)-based biocomposites with low-cost carbonaceous natural fibers (i.e., soy hulls, co-product from soybean industry) were prepared through twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The soy hull natural fiber was pyrolyzed at two different temperatures (500 °C and 900 °C denoted as BioC500 and BioC900 respectively) to obtain different types of biocarbons. The BioC500 preserved a higher number of functional groups as compared to BioC900. Higher graphitic carbon content was observed on the BioC900 than BioC500 as evident in Raman spectroscopy. Both biocarbons interact with the PA66 backbone through hydrogen bonding in different ways. BioC900 has a greater interaction with N-H stretching, while BioC500 interacts strongly with the amide I (C=O stretching) linkage. The BioC500 interrupts the crystallite growth of PA66 due to strong bond connection while the BioC900 promotes heterogeneous crystallization. Dynamic mechanical analysis shows that both biocarbons result in an increasing storage modulus and glass transition temperature with increasing content in the BioC/PA66 biocomposites over PA66. Rheological analysis shows that the incorporation of BioC900 results in decreasing melt viscosity of PA66, while the incorporation of BioC500 results in increasing the melt viscosity of PA66 due to greater filler–matrix adhesion. This study shows that pyrolyzed soy hull natural fiber can be processed effectively with a high temperature (>270 °C) engineering plastic for biocomposites fabrication with no degradation issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: nylon 6,6; pyrolysis; biobased composite; carbonaceous natural fiber; low-cost biofiller; industry co-product nylon 6,6; pyrolysis; biobased composite; carbonaceous natural fiber; low-cost biofiller; industry co-product
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Balint, T.; Chang, B.P.; Mohanty, A.K.; Misra, M. Underutilized Agricultural Co-Product as a Sustainable Biofiller for Polyamide 6,6: Effect of Carbonization Temperature. Molecules 2020, 25, 1455.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop