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Open AccessArticle

Analytical Technique Optimization on the Detection of β-cyclocitral in Microcystis Species

1
Graduate School of Environmental and Human Science, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku. Nagoya 468-8503, Japan
3
Department of Plant Physiology and Development, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
4
Kanagawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health, 1-3-1 Shimomachiya, Chigasaki, Kanagawa 253-0087, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tatsufumi Okino
Molecules 2020, 25(4), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25040832 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
β-Cyclocitral, specifically produced by Microcystis, is one of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from cyanobacteria and has a lytic activity. It is postulated that β-cyclocitral is a key compound for regulating the occurrence of cyanobacteria and related microorganisms in an aquatic environment. β-Cyclocitral is sensitively detected when a high density of the cells is achieved from late summer to autumn. Moreover, it is expected to be involved in changes in the species composition of cyanobacteria in a lake. Although several analysis methods for β-cyclocitral have already been reported, β-cyclocitral could be detected using only solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), whereas it could not be found at all using the solvent extraction method in a previous study. In this study, we investigated why β-cyclocitral was detected using only SPME GC/MS. Particularly, three operations in SPME, i.e., extraction temperature, sample stirring rate, and the effect of salt, were examined for the production of β-cyclocitral. Among these, heating (60 °C) was critical for the β-cyclocitral formation. Furthermore, acidification with a 1-h storage was more effective than heating when comparing the obtained amounts. The present results indicated that β-cyclocitral did not exist as the intact form in cells, because it was formed by heating or acidification of the resulting intermediates during the analysis by SPME. The obtained results would be helpful to understand the formation and role of β-cyclocitral in an aquatic environment.
Keywords: analysis; Microcystis; SPME; volatile organic compounds analysis; Microcystis; SPME; volatile organic compounds
MDPI and ACS Style

Yamashita, R.; Bober, B.; Kanei, K.; Arii, S.; Tsuji, K.; Harada, K.-I. Analytical Technique Optimization on the Detection of β-cyclocitral in Microcystis Species. Molecules 2020, 25, 832.

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