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Article

Comprehensive Metabolome Analysis of Fermented Aqueous Extracts of Viscum album L. by Liquid Chromatography−High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry

1
Metabolomics Laboratory, Institute of chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2
Multidisciplinary Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
3
Hiscia Research Institute, Society for Cancer Research, 4144 Arlesheim, Switzerland
4
Walter Mors Institute of Research on Natural Products (IPPN), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
5
Institute of Integrative Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, 58313 Herdecke, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Salvatore Genovese, Serena Fiorito and Derek J. McPhee
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 4006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174006
Received: 31 July 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in the Analysis of Medicinal Plants)
Fermented aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. are widely used for cancer treatment in complementary medicine. The high molecular weight compounds viscotoxins and lectins are considered to be the main active substances in the extracts. However, a vast number of small molecules (≤1500 Da) is also expected to be present, and few studies have investigated their identities. In this study, a comprehensive metabolome analysis of samples of fermented aqueous extracts of V. album from two host tree species (Malus domestica and Pinus sylvestris), both prepared by two pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, was performed by liquid chromatography−high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). A total of 212 metabolites were putatively annotated, including primary metabolites (e.g., amino acids, organic acids, etc.) and secondary metabolites (mostly phenolic compounds). A clear separation between V. album samples according to the host tree species, but not due to manufacturing processes, was observed by principal component analysis. The biomarkers responsible for this discrimination were assessed by partial least squares−discriminant analysis. Because V. album extracts from different host trees have different clinical applications, the present work highlights the possibility of characterizing the metabolome for identification and traceability of V. album fermented aqueous extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: mistletoe; metabolic profiling; LC-MS; host tree; metabolomics; natural products mistletoe; metabolic profiling; LC-MS; host tree; metabolomics; natural products
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peñaloza, E.; Holandino, C.; Scherr, C.; Araujo, P.I.P.d.; Borges, R.M.; Urech, K.; Baumgartner, S.; Garrett, R. Comprehensive Metabolome Analysis of Fermented Aqueous Extracts of Viscum album L. by Liquid Chromatography−High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2020, 25, 4006. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174006

AMA Style

Peñaloza E, Holandino C, Scherr C, Araujo PIPd, Borges RM, Urech K, Baumgartner S, Garrett R. Comprehensive Metabolome Analysis of Fermented Aqueous Extracts of Viscum album L. by Liquid Chromatography−High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Molecules. 2020; 25(17):4006. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174006

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peñaloza, Evelyn, Carla Holandino, Claudia Scherr, Paula I.P.d. Araujo, Ricardo M. Borges, Konrad Urech, Stephan Baumgartner, and Rafael Garrett. 2020. "Comprehensive Metabolome Analysis of Fermented Aqueous Extracts of Viscum album L. by Liquid Chromatography−High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry" Molecules 25, no. 17: 4006. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25174006

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