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Larvicidal Enzyme Inhibition and Repellent Activity of Red Mangrove Rhizophora mucronata (Lam.) Leaf Extracts and Their Biomolecules against Three Medically Challenging Arthropod Vectors

1
Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological Sciences, K.S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Namakkal, Tiruchengode Tamil Nadu 637 215, India
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
3
Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Kelambakkam, Chennai Tamil Nadu 603 103, India
4
Department of Biotechnology, Periyar University, Salem Tamil Nadu 636 011, India
5
Department of Biotechnology, St. Peter’s Institute of Higher Education and Research, Avadi, Chennai Tamil Nadu 600 054, India
6
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Muang Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
7
Innovative Agriculture Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Benelli
Molecules 2020, 25(17), 3844; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173844
Received: 3 August 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 21 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticide, Acaricide, Repellent and Antimicrobial Development)
The larvicidal potential of crude leaf extracts of Rhizophora mucronata, the red mangrove, using diverse solvent extracts of the plant against the early fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors was analyzed. The acetone extract of R. mucronata showed the greatest efficacy: for Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.13 mg/mL; LC90 = 2.84 mg/mL), An. stephensi (LC50 = 0.34 mg/mL; LC90 = 6.03 mg/mL), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 0.11 mg/mL; LC90 = 1.35 mg/mL). The acetone extract was further fractionated into four fractions and tested for its larvicidal activity. Fraction 3 showed stronger larvicidal activity against all the three mosquito larvae. Chemical characterization of the acetone extract displayed the existence of several identifiable compounds like phytol, 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol, 1-hexyl-2-nitrocyclohexane, eicosanoic acid etc. Enzyme assay displayed that R. mucronata active F3-fractions exert divergent effects on all three mosquitos’ biochemical defensive mechanisms. The plant fractions displayed significant repellent activity against all the three mosquito vectors up to the maximum repellent time of 210 min. Thus, the bioactive molecules in the acetone extract of R. murconata leaves showed significant larvicidal and enzyme inhibitory activity and displayed novel eco-friendly tool for mosquito control. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove; larvicidal activity; enzyme inhibition; Rhizophora mucronata; repellent; mosquitoes mangrove; larvicidal activity; enzyme inhibition; Rhizophora mucronata; repellent; mosquitoes
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Karthi, S.; Uthirarajan, K.; Manohar, V.; Venkatesan, M.; Chinnaperumal, K.; Vasantha-Srinivasan, P.; Krutmuang, P. Larvicidal Enzyme Inhibition and Repellent Activity of Red Mangrove Rhizophora mucronata (Lam.) Leaf Extracts and Their Biomolecules against Three Medically Challenging Arthropod Vectors. Molecules 2020, 25, 3844.

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