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Article

Fractionation of Biomolecules in Withania coagulans Extract for Bioreductive Nanoparticle Synthesis, Antifungal and Biofilm Activity

1
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
2
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (Baghdad-ul-Jadeed Campus), The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
3
College of Information Science and Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
4
Department of Botany, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
5
Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Benelli
Molecules 2020, 25(15), 3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153478
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticide, Acaricide, Repellent and Antimicrobial Development)
Withania coagulans contains a complex mixture of various bioactive compounds. In order to reduce the complexity of the plant extract to purify its phytochemical biomolecules, a novel fractionation strategy using different solvent combination ratios was applied to isolate twelve bioactive fractions. These fractions were tested for activity in the biogenic synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles, biofilm and antifungal activities. The results revealed that plant extract with bioactive fractions in 30% ratio for all solvent combinations showed more potent bioreducing power, according to the observed color changes and the appearance of representative absorption peaks at 500–510 nm in the UV-visible spectra which confirm the synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4 NPs). XRD diffraction was used to define the crystal structure, size and phase composition of the products. The fractions obtained using 90% methanol/hexane and 30% methanol/hexane showed more effectiveness against biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus so these fractions could potentially be used to treat bacterial infections. The 90% hexane/H2O fraction showed excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, while the 70% methanol/hexane fraction showed good antifungal activity for C. albicans, so these fractions are potentially useful for the treatment of various fungal infections. On the whole it was concluded that fractionation based on effective combinations of methanol/hexane was useful to investigate and study bioactive compounds, and the active compounds from these fractions may be further purified and tested in various clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: fractionation; reducing activity; biomolecules; antibiofilm; microbial infection fractionation; reducing activity; biomolecules; antibiofilm; microbial infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasan, M.; Zafar, A.; Shahzadi, I.; Luo, F.; Hassan, S.G.; Tariq, T.; Zehra, S.; Munawar, T.; Iqbal, F.; Shu, X. Fractionation of Biomolecules in Withania coagulans Extract for Bioreductive Nanoparticle Synthesis, Antifungal and Biofilm Activity. Molecules 2020, 25, 3478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153478

AMA Style

Hasan M, Zafar A, Shahzadi I, Luo F, Hassan SG, Tariq T, Zehra S, Munawar T, Iqbal F, Shu X. Fractionation of Biomolecules in Withania coagulans Extract for Bioreductive Nanoparticle Synthesis, Antifungal and Biofilm Activity. Molecules. 2020; 25(15):3478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasan, Murtaza, Ayesha Zafar, Irum Shahzadi, Fan Luo, Shahbaz Gul Hassan, Tuba Tariq, Sadaf Zehra, Tauseef Munawar, Faisal Iqbal, and Xugang Shu. 2020. "Fractionation of Biomolecules in Withania coagulans Extract for Bioreductive Nanoparticle Synthesis, Antifungal and Biofilm Activity" Molecules 25, no. 15: 3478. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25153478

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