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Review

Reviewing the Analytical Methodologies to Determine the Occurrence of Citrinin and Its Major Metabolite, Dihydrocitrinone, in Human Biological Fluids

1
LAQV, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Bromatology and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Stª Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Vasco da Gama Research Centre—Department of Veterinary Sceinces, Escola Universitária Vasco da Gama, Av. José R. Sousa Fernandes, Campus Universitário—Bloco B, 3020-210 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terenzio Bertuzzi
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2906; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122906
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Mycotoxin Analysis)
Until now, the available data regarding citrinin (CIT) levels in food and the consumption of contaminated foods are insufficient to allow a reliable estimate of intake. Therefore, biomonitoring configuring analysis of parent compound and/or metabolites in biological fluids, such as urine or blood, is being increasingly applied in the assessment of human exposure to CIT and its metabolite, dihydrocitrinone (DH-CIT). Most studies report urinary levels lower for the parent compound when compared with DH-CIT. A high variability either in the mean levels or in the inter-individual ratios of CIT/DH-CIT between the reported studies has been found. Levels of DH-CIT in urine were reported as being comprised between three to seventeen times higher than the parent mycotoxin. In order to comply with this objective, sensitive analytical methodologies for determining biomarkers of exposure are required. Recent development of powerful analytical techniques, namely liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-MS/MS) have facilitated biomonitoring studies, mainly in urine samples. In the present work, evidence on human exposure to CIT through its occurrence and its metabolite, in biological fluids, urine and blood/plasma, in different countries, is reviewed. The analytical methodologies usually employed to evaluate trace quantities of these two molecules, are also presented. In this sense, relevant data on sampling (size and pre-treatment), extraction, cleanup and detection and quantification techniques and respective chromatographic conditions, as well as the analytical performance, are evidenced. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrinin; dihydrocitrinone; biomonitoring; urine; blood; plasma; analytical methodologies citrinin; dihydrocitrinone; biomonitoring; urine; blood; plasma; analytical methodologies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, L.; Pereira, A.; Duarte, S.; Pena, A.; Lino, C. Reviewing the Analytical Methodologies to Determine the Occurrence of Citrinin and Its Major Metabolite, Dihydrocitrinone, in Human Biological Fluids. Molecules 2020, 25, 2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122906

AMA Style

Silva L, Pereira A, Duarte S, Pena A, Lino C. Reviewing the Analytical Methodologies to Determine the Occurrence of Citrinin and Its Major Metabolite, Dihydrocitrinone, in Human Biological Fluids. Molecules. 2020; 25(12):2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122906

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Liliana, André Pereira, Sofia Duarte, Angelina Pena, and Celeste Lino. 2020. "Reviewing the Analytical Methodologies to Determine the Occurrence of Citrinin and Its Major Metabolite, Dihydrocitrinone, in Human Biological Fluids" Molecules 25, no. 12: 2906. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122906

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