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Open AccessArticle

Fatty Acid and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Slovenian Milk: Year, Season, and Regional Variability

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Computer Systems, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Department of Animal Science, Chair of Nutrition, Biotechnical Faculty, Groblje 3, 1230 Domžale, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miguel Palma Lovillo
Molecules 2020, 25(12), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122892
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 21 June 2020 / Published: 23 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
This study examined the percentage and stable isotope ratios of fatty acids in milk to study seasonal, year, and regional variability. A total of 231 raw cow milk samples were analyzed. Samples were taken twice per year in 2012, 2013, and 2014, in winter and summer, covering four distinct geographical regions in Slovenia: Mediterranean, Alpine, Dinaric, and Pannonian. A discriminant analysis model based on fatty acid composition was effective in discriminating milk according to the year/season of production (86.9%), while geographical origin discrimination was less successful (64.1%). The stable isotope composition of fatty acids also proved to be a better biomarker of metabolic transformation processes in ruminants than discriminating against the origin of milk. Further, it was observed that milk from Alpine and Mediterranean regions was healthier due to its higher percentage of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and conjugated linoleic acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; fatty acids; stable carbon isotope composition; GC-FID; CSIA; statistical analyses milk; fatty acids; stable carbon isotope composition; GC-FID; CSIA; statistical analyses
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://zenodo.org
    Description: δ13C of fatty acids in milk from different geographical location in Slovenia during summer/winter in 2013 and 2014.
  • Externally hosted supplementary file 2
    Link: https://zenodo.org
    Description: Geographical information of the sampling location
MDPI and ACS Style

Potočnik, D.; Strojnik, L.; Eftimov, T.; Levart, A.; Ogrinc, N. Fatty Acid and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Slovenian Milk: Year, Season, and Regional Variability. Molecules 2020, 25, 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122892

AMA Style

Potočnik D, Strojnik L, Eftimov T, Levart A, Ogrinc N. Fatty Acid and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Slovenian Milk: Year, Season, and Regional Variability. Molecules. 2020; 25(12):2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Potočnik, Doris; Strojnik, Lidija; Eftimov, Tome; Levart, Alenka; Ogrinc, Nives. 2020. "Fatty Acid and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Slovenian Milk: Year, Season, and Regional Variability" Molecules 25, no. 12: 2892. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122892

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