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Can We Discover Truffle’s True Identity?

Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
Center Agriculture Food Environment (C3A), University of Trento, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (TN), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2217;
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 7 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotopic Techniques for Food Science)
This study used elemental and stable isotope composition to characterize Slovenian truffles and used multi-variate statistical analysis to classify truffles according to species and geographical origin. Despite the fact that the Slovenian truffles shared some similar characteristics with the samples originating from other countries, differences in the element concentrations suggest that respective truffle species may respond selectively to nutrients from a certain soil type under environmental and soil conditions. Cross-validation resulted in a 77% correct classification rate for determining the geographical origin and a 74% correct classification rate to discriminate between species. The critical parameters for geographical origin discriminations were Sr, Ba, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ba/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios, while from stable isotopes δ18O and δ13C values are the most important. The key variables that distinguish T. magnatum from other species are the levels of V and Zn and δ15N values. Tuber aestivum can be separated based on the levels of Ni, Cr, Mn, Mg, As, and Cu. This preliminary study indicates the possibility to differentiate truffles according to their variety and geographical origin and suggests widening the scope to include stable strontium isotopes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tuber; species; stable isotopes; elemental composition; multivariate discriminant analysis; geographical origin Tuber; species; stable isotopes; elemental composition; multivariate discriminant analysis; geographical origin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hamzić Gregorčič, S.; Strojnik, L.; Potočnik, D.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Jagodic, M.; Camin, F.; Zuliani, T.; Ogrinc, N. Can We Discover Truffle’s True Identity? Molecules 2020, 25, 2217.

AMA Style

Hamzić Gregorčič S, Strojnik L, Potočnik D, Vogel-Mikuš K, Jagodic M, Camin F, Zuliani T, Ogrinc N. Can We Discover Truffle’s True Identity? Molecules. 2020; 25(9):2217.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hamzić Gregorčič, Staša, Lidija Strojnik, Doris Potočnik, Katarina Vogel-Mikuš, Marta Jagodic, Federica Camin, Tea Zuliani, and Nives Ogrinc. 2020. "Can We Discover Truffle’s True Identity?" Molecules 25, no. 9: 2217.

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