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Zeolite Clinoptilolite: Therapeutic Virtues of an Ancient Mineral

1
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, 14183 Huddinge, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors equally contributed to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1517; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081517
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Zeolites are porous minerals with high absorbency and ion-exchange capacity. Their molecular structure is a dense network of AlO4 and SiO4 that generates cavities where water and other polar molecules or ions are inserted/exchanged. Even though there are several synthetic or natural occurring species of zeolites, the most widespread and studied is the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite (ZC). ZC is an excellent detoxifying, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. As a result, it is been used in many industrial applications ranging from environmental remediation to oral applications/supplementation in vivo in humans as food supplements or medical devices. Moreover, the modification as micronization of ZC (M-ZC) or tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite (TMAZ) or furthermore as double tribomechanically activated zeolite clinoptilolite (PMA-ZC) allows improving its benefits in preclinical and clinical models. Despite its extensive use, many underlying action mechanisms of ZC in its natural or modified forms are still unclear, especially in humans. The main aim of this review is to shed light on the geochemical aspects and therapeutic potentials of ZC with a vision of endorsing further preclinical and clinical research on zeolites, in specific on the ZC and its modified forms as a potential agent for promoting human brain health and overall well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: zeolite clinoptilolite; micronization; tribomechanical activation; detoxifying; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; Alzheimer disease zeolite clinoptilolite; micronization; tribomechanical activation; detoxifying; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; Alzheimer disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mastinu, A.; Kumar, A.; Maccarinelli, G.; Bonini, S.A.; Premoli, M.; Aria, F.; Gianoncelli, A.; Memo, M. Zeolite Clinoptilolite: Therapeutic Virtues of an Ancient Mineral. Molecules 2019, 24, 1517.

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