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Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081516 (registering DOI)

Advances in the Understanding of Skin Cancer: Ultraviolet Radiation, Mutations, and Antisense Oligonucleotides as Anticancer Drugs

1
Medical Academy named after S.I. Georgievsky, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Lenin Boulevard 5/7, 295051 Simferopol, Crimea
2
Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Kiyevskaya St. 150, 295493, Simferopol, Crimea
3
Taurida Academy, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Vernadsky Av. 4, 295007 Simferopol, Crimea
4
Nikita Botanical Gardens – National Scientific Centre RAS, Nikitsky spusk 52, vil. Nikita, 298648 Yalta, Crimea
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D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya sq. 9, 125047 Moscow, Russia
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Centre for Genomic and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova St. 8, 690090 Vladivostok, Russia
7
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Palchevsky St. 17, 690041 Vladivostok, Russia
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Ltd "NPF Syntol", Тimiryazevskaya St. 42, 127434 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 13 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Anticancer Drugs)
PDF [985 KB, uploaded 17 April 2019]

Abstract

Skin cancer has always been and remains the leader among all tumors in terms of occurrence. One of the main factors responsible for skin cancer, natural and artificial UV radiation, causes the mutations that transform healthy cells into cancer cells. These mutations inactivate apoptosis, an event required to avoid the malignant transformation of healthy cells. Among these deadliest of cancers, melanoma and its ‘younger sister’, Merkel cell carcinoma, are the most lethal. The heavy toll of skin cancers stems from their rapid progression and the fact that they metastasize easily. Added to this is the difficulty in determining reliable margins when excising tumors and the lack of effective chemotherapy. Possibly the biggest problem posed by skin cancer is reliably detecting the extent to which cancer cells have spread throughout the body. The initial tumor is visible and can be removed, whereas metastases are invisible to the naked eye and much harder to eliminate. In our opinion, antisense oligonucleotides, which can be used in the form of targeted ointments, provide real hope as a treatment that will eliminate cancer cells near the tumor focus both before and after surgery.
Keywords: melanoma; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; ultraviolet radiation; mutations; skin; antisense oligonucleotides melanoma; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; Merkel cell carcinoma; dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans; ultraviolet radiation; mutations; skin; antisense oligonucleotides
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Laikova, K.V.; Oberemok, V.V.; Krasnodubets, A.M.; Gal’chinsky, N.V.; Useinov, R.Z.; Novikov, I.A.; Temirova, Z.Z.; Gorlov, M.V.; Shved, N.A.; Kumeiko, V.V.; Makalish, T.P.; Bessalova, E.Y.; Fomochkina, I.I.; Esin, A.S.; Volkov, M.E.; Kubyshkin, A.V. Advances in the Understanding of Skin Cancer: Ultraviolet Radiation, Mutations, and Antisense Oligonucleotides as Anticancer Drugs. Molecules 2019, 24, 1516.

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