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Open AccessArticle

Industrial-Scale Decontamination Procedure Effects on the Content of Acaricides, Heavy Metals and Antioxidant Capacity of Beeswax

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Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology “José Mataix Verdú”, Department of Physiology, Biomedical Research Center, University of Granada, Avda del Conocimiento sn., 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain
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Apinevada Analytical Laboratory of Bee Products, Barrancos s/n, Lanjarón, 18420 Granada, Spain
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Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Specialistiche ed Odontostomatologiche—Sez, Biochimica, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Research & Development Department, Mielso, S.A., Pol. Industrial ’El Mijares’, C/. Industria 1, 12550 Almassora (Castelló), Spain
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Nutrition and Food Science Group, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, CITACA, CACTI, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(8), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081518
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Beeswax is useful for the beekeeping sector but also for the agro-food, pharmaceutical or cosmetics sectors. Frequently, this bee product is contaminated with pesticides reducing its utility and causing the decline in its market. This study aimed to prove the effectiveness of an industrial-scale decontamination method in removing acaricides from beeswax. Chlorfenvinphos and coumaphos decrease was higher than 90%, whereas tau fluvalinate decrease was only 30%. No changes were observed in the beeswax content of hydrocarbons and monoesters, whereas a decrease in the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, Hg, Mn and P, and an increase in the concentrations of As and Si were found after the decontamination. Filtration reduced total phenolics, flavonoids and the antioxidant capacity of the lipophilic extract. These results demonstrate that the industrial method used was as effective as the method previously tested on a laboratory scale. The study also contributes to a better knowledge and characterization of beeswax, specially related to trace and ultra-trace elements and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, it offers the chance to further develop a method to effectively detect wax adulterations based on the chemical elements profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: beeswax decontamination; pesticides; monoesters; hydrocarbons; chemical elements; flavonoids; total phenols; adulteration beeswax decontamination; pesticides; monoesters; hydrocarbons; chemical elements; flavonoids; total phenols; adulteration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro-Hortal, M.D.; Orantes-Bermejo, F.J.; Sánchez-González, C.; Varela-López, A.; Giampieri, F.; Torres Fernández-Piñar, C.; Serra-Bonvehí, J.; Forbes-Hernández, T.Y.; Reboredo-Rodríguez, P.; Llopis, J.; Aranda, P.; Battino, M.; Quiles, J.L. Industrial-Scale Decontamination Procedure Effects on the Content of Acaricides, Heavy Metals and Antioxidant Capacity of Beeswax. Molecules 2019, 24, 1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081518

AMA Style

Navarro-Hortal MD, Orantes-Bermejo FJ, Sánchez-González C, Varela-López A, Giampieri F, Torres Fernández-Piñar C, Serra-Bonvehí J, Forbes-Hernández TY, Reboredo-Rodríguez P, Llopis J, Aranda P, Battino M, Quiles JL. Industrial-Scale Decontamination Procedure Effects on the Content of Acaricides, Heavy Metals and Antioxidant Capacity of Beeswax. Molecules. 2019; 24(8):1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081518

Chicago/Turabian Style

Navarro-Hortal, María D.; Orantes-Bermejo, Francisco J.; Sánchez-González, Cristina; Varela-López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Torres Fernández-Piñar, Cristina; Serra-Bonvehí, Josep; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y.; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Llopis, Juan; Aranda, Pilar; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L. 2019. "Industrial-Scale Decontamination Procedure Effects on the Content of Acaricides, Heavy Metals and Antioxidant Capacity of Beeswax" Molecules 24, no. 8: 1518. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081518

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