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Molecules 2019, 24(5), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050956

Individual and Combined Effects of Extracellular Polymeric Substances and Whole Cell Components of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis and Stability

1
Nanobiomaterials and Bioprocessing Laboratory (NABLAB), Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710, USA
2
School of Biological Sciences and Engineering, Yachay Tech University, Hacienda San José s/n, San Miguel de Urcuquí 100119, Ecuador
3
Center for Advances in Water & Air Quality, Lamar University, 211 Redbird Ln, Box 10888, Beaumont, TX 77710-0088, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Nanomaterials: Versatility and Applications)
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Abstract

The fresh water microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bioreduced Ag+ to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via three biosynthetic routes in a process that could be a more sustainable alternative to conventionally produced AgNPs. The AgNPs were synthesized in either the presence of whole cell cultures, an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-containing cell culture supernatant, or living cells that had been separated from the EPS-containing supernatant and then washed before being suspended again in fresh media. While AgNPs were produced by all three methods, the washed cultures had no supernatant-derived EPS and produced only unstable AgNPs, thus the supernatant-EPS was shown to be necessary to cap and stabilize the biogenic AgNPs. TEM images showed stable AgNPs were mostly spherical and showed a bimodal size distribution about the size ranges of 3.0 ± 1.3 nm and 19.2 ± 5.0 nm for whole cultures and 3.5 ± 0.6 nm and 17.4 ± 2.6 nm for EPS only. Moreover, selected area electron diffraction pattern of these AgNPs confirmed their polycrystalline nature. FTIR of the as-produced AgNPs identified polysaccharides, polyphenols and proteins were responsible for the observed differences in the AgNP stability, size and shape. Additionally, Raman spectroscopy indicated carboxylate and amine groups were bound to the AgNP surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanobiomaterials; bionanotechnology; biosynthesis; sustainability; green chemistry nanobiomaterials; bionanotechnology; biosynthesis; sustainability; green chemistry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rahman, A.; Kumar, S.; Bafana, A.; Dahoumane, S.A.; Jeffryes, C. Individual and Combined Effects of Extracellular Polymeric Substances and Whole Cell Components of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis and Stability. Molecules 2019, 24, 956.

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