Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline porous materials composed of metal ions or clusters coordinated with organic linkers. Due to their extraordinary properties such as high porosity with homogeneous and tunable in size pores/cages, as well as high thermal and chemical stability, MOFs have gained attention in diverse analytical applications. MOFs have been coupled with a wide variety of extraction techniques including solid-phase extraction (SPE), dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE), and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for the extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from complex matrices. The low concentration levels of metal ions in real samples including food samples, environmental samples, and biological samples, as well as the increased number of potentially interfering ions, make the determination of trace levels of metal ions still challenging. A wide variety of MOF materials have been employed for the extraction of metals from sample matrices prior to their determination with spectrometric techniques.
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