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Open AccessArticle

Highly Sensitive Detection of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin by Means of Fiber Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

1
Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, 07745 Jena, Germany
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University, 07743 Jena, Germany
3
Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich Schiller University, 07745 Jena, Germany
4
Institute of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, University Hospital, 07747 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4512; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244512
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
Sepsis and septic shock exhibit a rapid course and a high fatality rate. Antibiotic treatment is time-critical and precise knowledge of the antibiotic concentration during the patients’ treatment would allow individual dose adaption. Over- and underdosing will increase the antimicrobial efficacy and reduce toxicity. We demonstrated that fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) can be used to detect very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin in clinically relevant doses, down to 1.5 µM. Fiber enhancement was achieved in bandgap shifted photonic crystal fibers. The high linearity between the Raman signals and the drug concentrations allows a robust calibration for drug quantification. The needed sample volume was very low (0.58 µL) and an acquisition time of 30 s allowed the rapid monitoring of ciprofloxacin levels in a less invasive way than conventional techniques. These results demonstrate that FERS has a high potential for clinical in-situ monitoring of ciprofloxacin levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy; antibiotics; ciprofloxacin; fiber sensing; ultrasensitive; therapeutic drug monitoring; sepsis; hollow core photonic crystal fiber; photonic bandgap Fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy; antibiotics; ciprofloxacin; fiber sensing; ultrasensitive; therapeutic drug monitoring; sepsis; hollow core photonic crystal fiber; photonic bandgap
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wolf, S.; Frosch, T.; Popp, J.; Pletz, M.W.; Frosch, T. Highly Sensitive Detection of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin by Means of Fiber Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Molecules 2019, 24, 4512.

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