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Open AccessArticle

Mechanochemical Synthesis of CuO/MgAl2O4 and MgFe2O4 Spinels for Vanillin Production from Isoeugenol and Vanillyl Alcohol

1
Esfarayen University of Technology, Esfarayen 96619-98195, Iran
2
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV-A, Km 396, E14014 Córdoba, Spain
3
Chemical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box 51335-1996, Sahand New Town, Tabriz 53318-11111, Iran
4
Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho Maklaya str., 117198 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vjekoslav Štrukil and Matej Baláž
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142597
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 17 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development of Mechanochemical Synthesis)
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Abstract

CuO/MgAl2O4 and CuO/MgFe2O4 catalysts were successfully synthesized with the use of spinel supports by a very simple and low-cost mechanochemical method. High-speed ball-milling was used to synthesize these catalyst supports for the first time. Materials were subsequently characterized by using XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDS-Dot mapping, XPS, BET-BJH, and Magnetic Susceptibility to investigate the physical-chemical characteristics of the catalysts. Acidity evaluation results indicated that the catalyst with the Mg-Al spinel support had more acid sites. XRD results showed a successful synthesis of the catalysts with large crystal sizes. Both catalysts were used in isoeugenol oxidation and vanillyl alcohol to vanillin reactions, with the CuO/MgAl2O4 showing optimum results. This catalyst provided 67% conversion (74% selectivity) after 2 h and this value improved to 81% (selectivity 100%) with the second reaction after 8 h. The CuO/MgFe2O4 catalyst in the first reaction after five hours revealed 53% conversion (47% selectivity) and after eight hours with the second reaction, the conversion value improved to 64% (100% selectivity). In terms of reusability, CuO/MgAl2O4 showed better results than the CuO/MgFe2O4 catalyst, for both reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: high speed ball-milling; mechanochemistry; spinel; vanillin; vanillyl alcohol; isoeugenol high speed ball-milling; mechanochemistry; spinel; vanillin; vanillyl alcohol; isoeugenol
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Rahmanivahid, B.; Pinilla-de Dios, M.; Haghighi, M.; Luque, R. Mechanochemical Synthesis of CuO/MgAl2O4 and MgFe2O4 Spinels for Vanillin Production from Isoeugenol and Vanillyl Alcohol. Molecules 2019, 24, 2597.

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