Next Article in Journal
The Nervous System Relevance of the Calcium Sensing Receptor in Health and Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Anticancer Function and ROS-Mediated Multi-Targeting Anticancer Mechanisms of Copper (II) 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde Complexes
Previous Article in Special Issue
The PPARγ Agonist Rosiglitazone Suppresses Syngeneic Mouse SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) Tumor Growth through an Immune-Mediated Mechanism
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

PPARs as Nuclear Receptors for Nutrient and Energy Metabolism

1,2,†, 1,2,†, 1,2, 3,* and 1,2,*
Beijing Key Laboratory of Gene Resource and Molecular Development, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Key Laboratory for Cell Proliferation and Regulation Biology of State Education Ministry, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2545;
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of PPAR Receptors in Human Health and Disease)
PDF [1156 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


It has been more than 36 years since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were first recognized as enhancers of peroxisome proliferation. Consequently, many studies in different fields have illustrated that PPARs are nuclear receptors that participate in nutrient and energy metabolism and regulate cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis during lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth, cancer development, and so on. With increasing challenges to human health, PPARs have attracted much attention for their ability to ameliorate metabolic syndromes. In our previous studies, we found that the complex functions of PPARs may be used as future targets in obesity and atherosclerosis treatments. Here, we review three types of PPARs that play overlapping but distinct roles in nutrient and energy metabolism during different metabolic states and in different organs. Furthermore, research has emerged showing that PPARs also play many other roles in inflammation, central nervous system-related diseases, and cancer. Increasingly, drug development has been based on the use of several selective PPARs as modulators to diminish the adverse effects of the PPAR agonists previously used in clinical practice. In conclusion, the complex roles of PPARs in metabolic networks keep these factors in the forefront of research because it is hoped that they will have potential therapeutic effects in future applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPARs; nutrition; energy metabolism; selective agonist PPARs; nutrition; energy metabolism; selective agonist

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hong, F.; Pan, S.; Guo, Y.; Xu, P.; Zhai, Y. PPARs as Nuclear Receptors for Nutrient and Energy Metabolism. Molecules 2019, 24, 2545.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top