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Influence of Bacterial Physiology on Processing of Selenite, Biogenesis of Nanomaterials and Their Thermodynamic Stability

1
Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Environmental Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share senior authorship.
Academic Editors: Clayton Jeffryes and Si Amar Dahoumane
Molecules 2019, 24(14), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24142532
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biogenic Nanomaterials: Versatility and Applications)
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Abstract

We explored how Ochrobactrum sp. MPV1 can convert up to 2.5 mM selenite within 120 h, surviving the challenge posed by high oxyanion concentrations. The data show that thiol-based biotic chemical reaction(s) occur upon bacterial exposure to low selenite concentrations, whereas enzymatic systems account for oxyanion removal when 2 mM oxyanion is exceeded. The selenite bioprocessing produces selenium nanomaterials, whose size and morphology depend on the bacterial physiology. Selenium nanoparticles were always produced by MPV1 cells, featuring an average diameter ranging between 90 and 140 nm, which we conclude constitutes the thermodynamic stability range for these nanostructures. Alternatively, selenium nanorods were observed for bacterial cells exposed to high selenite concentration or under controlled metabolism. Biogenic nanomaterials were enclosed by an organic material in part composed of amphiphilic biomolecules, which could form nanosized structures independently. Bacterial physiology influences the surface charge characterizing the organic material, suggesting its diverse biomolecular composition and its involvement in the tuning of the nanomaterial morphology. Finally, the organic material is in thermodynamic equilibrium with nanomaterials and responsible for their electrosteric stabilization, as changes in the temperature slightly influence the stability of biogenic compared to chemogenic nanomaterials. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogenic nanomaterials; selenium nanomaterials; selenite; selenium nanoparticles; selenium nanorods; Ochrobactrum; thermodynamic stability; electrosteric stabilization biogenic nanomaterials; selenium nanomaterials; selenite; selenium nanoparticles; selenium nanorods; Ochrobactrum; thermodynamic stability; electrosteric stabilization
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Piacenza, E.; Presentato, A.; Bardelli, M.; Lampis, S.; Vallini, G.; Turner, R.J. Influence of Bacterial Physiology on Processing of Selenite, Biogenesis of Nanomaterials and Their Thermodynamic Stability. Molecules 2019, 24, 2532.

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