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Modelling the Mass Transfer Process of Malvidin-3-Glucoside during Simulated Extraction from Fresh Grape Solids under Wine-Like Conditions
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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2353; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092353

Effect of Lachancea thermotolerans on the Formation of Polymeric Pigments during Sequential Fermentation with Schizosaccharosmyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1
enotecUPM. Chemistry and Food Technology Department, School of Agronomic, Food and Biosystems Engineering. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Av. Puerta de Hierro 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
LEAF-Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
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Abstract

Anthocyanins in red grape musts may evolve during the winemaking process and wine aging for several different reasons; colour stability and evolution is a complex process that may depend on grape variety, winemaking technology, fermentative yeast selection, co-pigmentation phenomena and polymerization. The condensation of flavanols with anthocyanins may occur either with the flavylium ion or with the hemiacetal formation in order to produce oligomers and polymers. The kinetics of the reaction are enhanced by the presence of metabolic acetaldehyde, promoting the formation of pyranoanthocyanin-type dimers or flavanol-ethyl-anthocyanin structures. The experimental design carried out using white must corrected with the addition of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and flavanols, suggests that non-Saccharomyces yeasts are able to provide increased levels of colour intensity and larger polymeric pigment ratios and polymerization indexes. The selection of non-Saccharomyces genera, in particular Lachancea thermotolerans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in sequential fermentation, have provided experimental wines with increased fruity esters, as well as producing wines with potential pigment compositions, even though there is an important reduction of total anthocyanins. View Full-Text
Keywords: malvidin; polymeric pigments; non-Saccharomyces; red wine; flavanols malvidin; polymeric pigments; non-Saccharomyces; red wine; flavanols
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Escott, C.; Morata, A.; Ricardo-da-Silva, J.M.; Callejo, M.J.; González, M.C.; Suarez-Lepe, J.A. Effect of Lachancea thermotolerans on the Formation of Polymeric Pigments during Sequential Fermentation with Schizosaccharosmyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecules 2018, 23, 2353.

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