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Open AccessArticle

Modelling the Mass Transfer Process of Malvidin-3-Glucoside during Simulated Extraction from Fresh Grape Solids under Wine-Like Conditions

1
Department of Wine and Food Science, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064, Australia
2
The Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond SA 5064, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092159
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
Extraction of grape components is a key consideration for red winemaking. The impact of changing process variables on mass transfer properties of anthocyanins from fresh pre-fermentative red grape solids under forced convective conditions was explored using the dominant red grape anthocyanin, malvidin-3-glucoside (M3G) as a model solute. A two level full factorial design was implemented to investigate effects of temperature, sugar and ethanol on mass transfer properties. Factor levels were chosen to simulate conditions found at various points during the maceration and fermentation steps of the red winemaking process. A rigorous mathematical model was developed and applied to experimental extraction curves, allowing the separation of mass transport properties in liquid and solid phases in a wine-like system, for the first time. In all cases, the coefficient of determination exceeded 0.92, indicating good agreement between experimental and mathematically-solved M3G concentrations. For the conditions studied, internal mass transfer was found to limit M3G extraction and changes to the liquid phase composition and temperature influence the distribution constant. Surface response models of mass transfer parameters were developed to allow future simulations of fermentation scenarios aimed at maximising the extraction potential of M3G. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic extraction; diffusion; anthocyanin; process modelling; wine colour; mass transfer phenolic extraction; diffusion; anthocyanin; process modelling; wine colour; mass transfer
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Setford, P.C.; Jeffery, D.W.; Grbin, P.R.; Muhlack, R.A. Modelling the Mass Transfer Process of Malvidin-3-Glucoside during Simulated Extraction from Fresh Grape Solids under Wine-Like Conditions. Molecules 2018, 23, 2159.

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