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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Different Techniques of Malolactic Fermentation Induction on Diacetyl Metabolism and Biosynthesis of Selected Aromatic Esters in Cool-Climate Grape Wines

1
Department of Fermentation and Biosynthesis, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Food Chemistry and Instrumental Analysis, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2549; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102549
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
The effects of different malolactic bacteria fermentation techniques on the bioconversion of aromatic compounds in cool-climate grape wines were examined. During three wine seasons, red and white grape wines were produced using various malolactic fermentation induction techniques: Coinoculation, sequential inoculation, and spontaneous process. Volatile compounds (diacetyl and the products of its metabolism, and selected ethyl fatty acid esters) were extracted by solid phase microextraction. Compounds were identified with a multidimensional gas chromatograph—GC × GC-ToFMS with ZOEX cryogenic (N2) modulator. Sensory evaluation of the wines was also performed. It was found that the fermentation-derived metabolites studied were affected by the malolactic bacteria inoculation regime. Quantitatively, ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, and ethyl acetate dominated as esters with the largest increase in content. The total concentration of ethyl esters was highest for the coinoculation technique, while the highest concentration of diacetyl was noted for the spontaneous technique. Controlled malolactic fermentation, especially using the coinoculation technique, can be proposed as a safe and efficient enological practice for producing quality cool-climate grape wines enriched with fruity, fresh, and floral aromas. View Full-Text
Keywords: malolactic fermentation; coinoculation; diacetyl; esters; aromatic compounds; grape wine malolactic fermentation; coinoculation; diacetyl; esters; aromatic compounds; grape wine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lasik-Kurdyś, M.; Majcher, M.; Nowak, J. Effects of Different Techniques of Malolactic Fermentation Induction on Diacetyl Metabolism and Biosynthesis of Selected Aromatic Esters in Cool-Climate Grape Wines. Molecules 2018, 23, 2549.

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