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Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2172; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092172

Hematological, Biochemical, Histopathological and 1H-NMR Metabolomics Application in Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans Water Leaf Extract

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UCSI University Kuala Lumpur Campus, Jalan Menara Gading, UCSI Heights (Taman Connaught), Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Abstract

The present study aims for the first time to provide the in vivo acute toxicological profile of the highest dose of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau water leaf extract according to the Organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD) 423 guidelines through conventional toxicity and advanced proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) serum and urinary metabolomics evaluation methods. A single dose of 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water extract was administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Conventional toxicity evaluation methods (physical observation, body and organ weight, food and water consumption, hematology, biochemical testing and histopathological analysis) suggested no abnormal toxicity signs. Serum 1H-NMR metabolome revealed no significant metabolic difference between untreated and treated groups. Urinary 1H-NMR analysis, on the other hand, revealed alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism in extract-treated rats after 2 h of extract administration, but the metabolic expression collected after 24 h and at Day 5, Day 10 and Day 15 indicated that the extract-treated rats did not accumulate any toxicity biomarkers. Importantly, the outcomes further suggest that single oral administration of up to 5000 mg/kg bw of C. nutans water leaf extract is safe for consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clinacanthus nutans; medicinal plant; biochemical test; histopathology; urinary metabolomics; toxicity; 1H-NMR metabolomics; metabolic pathway Clinacanthus nutans; medicinal plant; biochemical test; histopathology; urinary metabolomics; toxicity; 1H-NMR metabolomics; metabolic pathway
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Khoo, L.W.; Foong Kow, A.S.; Maulidiani, M.; Lee, M.T.; Tan, C.P.; Shaari, K.; Tham, C.L.; Abas, F. Hematological, Biochemical, Histopathological and 1H-NMR Metabolomics Application in Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans Water Leaf Extract. Molecules 2018, 23, 2172.

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