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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082066

A Polyphenol Rich Extract from Solanum melongena L. DR2 Peel Exhibits Antioxidant Properties and Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity In Vitro

1
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Istituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci-Bolognetti, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
Research Centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics (CREA-GB), Via Paullese 28, Lodi, 26836 Montanaso Lombardo, Italy
6
Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing (CREA-IT), Via Venezian 26, 20133 Milan, Italy
These authors equally contributed to the work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Active Agents Against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites)
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Abstract

DR2B and DR2C extracts, obtained by ethanolic maceration of peel from commercially and physiologically ripe aubergine berries, were studied for the antioxidative cytoprotective properties and anti-HSV-1 activity, in line with the evidence that several antioxidants can impair viral replication by maintaining reducing conditions in host cells. The antioxidative cytoprotective effects against tBOOH-induced damage were assessed in Caco2 cells, while antiviral activity was studied in Vero cells; polyphenolic fingerprints were characterized by integrated phytochemical methods. Results highlighted different compositions of the extracts, with chlorogenic acid and delphinidin-3-rutinoside as the major constituents; other peculiar phytochemicals were also identified. Both samples reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and exhibited scavenging and chelating properties. DR2C partly counteracted the tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity, with a remarkable lowering of lactate metabolism under both normoxia and hypoxia; interestingly, it increased intracellular GSH levels. Furthermore, DR2C inhibited the HSV-1 replication when added for 24 h after viral adsorption, as also confirmed by the reduction of many viral proteins’ expression. Since DR2C was able to reduce NOX4 expression during HSV-1 infection, its antiviral activity may be correlated to its antioxidant properties. Although further studies are needed to better characterize DR2C activity, the results suggest this extract as a promising new anti-HSV-1 agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: eggplant peel; polyphenols; HSV-1; Warburg effect; antioxidant activity; antiviral agents; vegetable waste eggplant peel; polyphenols; HSV-1; Warburg effect; antioxidant activity; antiviral agents; vegetable waste
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Di Sotto, A.; Di Giacomo, S.; Amatore, D.; Locatelli, M.; Vitalone, A.; Toniolo, C.; Rotino, G.L.; Lo Scalzo, R.; Palamara, A.T.; Marcocci, M.E.; Nencioni, L. A Polyphenol Rich Extract from Solanum melongena L. DR2 Peel Exhibits Antioxidant Properties and Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity In Vitro. Molecules 2018, 23, 2066.

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