Next Article in Journal
A Polyphenol Rich Extract from Solanum melongena L. DR2 Peel Exhibits Antioxidant Properties and Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity In Vitro
Previous Article in Journal
UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Applied for the Quality Evaluation of Four Processed Panax ginseng Products
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082065

Two Classes of Pigments, Carotenoids and C-Phycocyanin, in Spirulina Powder and Their Antioxidant Activities

1
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
2
Plants for Human Health Institute, North Carolina State University, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
3
Department of Information and Statistics and RINS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea
4
Korea Institute of Toxicology, Jinju 52834, Korea
5
Plant Systems Engineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
Both first authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [681 KB, uploaded 17 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina that contains distinctive natural pigments, including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1) by an LC-DAD method and UV-Visible spectrometry, respectively. The correlation of these two pigment content levels with Hunter color coordinates and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The L* value failed to show a significant correlation with pigment content, but a positive correlation was observed between a* values and the contents of total carotenoid and C-PC. As b* values decreased, the chlorophyll a and C-PC contents increased. AP-1 exhibited the highest content of total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and C-PC, and antioxidant activities among the samples. This observation could be related to degradation of these pigments during the mass production process. The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A. maxima. Total carotenoid and C-PC content exhibited positive significant correlations with antioxidant activities measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. These results provide a strong scientific foundation for the establishment of standards for the commercial distribution of quality spirulina products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arthrospira platensis; carotenoids; natural pigments; spirulina powder; C-phycocyanin; antioxidant activity Arthrospira platensis; carotenoids; natural pigments; spirulina powder; C-phycocyanin; antioxidant activity
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Park, W.S.; Kim, H.-J.; Li, M.; Lim, D.H.; Kim, J.; Kwak, S.-S.; Kang, C.-M.; Ferruzzi, M.G.; Ahn, M.-J. Two Classes of Pigments, Carotenoids and C-Phycocyanin, in Spirulina Powder and Their Antioxidant Activities. Molecules 2018, 23, 2065.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top