Food and agricultural waste represents a growing problem with negative effects on the economy, environment, and human health. Winemaking produces byproducts with high added value, which can be used for new productions in several application fields. From the perspective of biorefinery and circular economy, grape seeds could be exploited by extracting bioactive compounds with high added value before using biomass for energy purposes. The markets concerned are, in addition to the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals sectors, which use bioactive compounds, the sector of biopolymeric materials and of energy for the production of biohydrogen and biomethane. Generally, bioactive components should be investigated through an integrated and multidisciplinary study approach based on emerging analytical techniques; in this context, attention is addressed towards green and sustainable procedures; an update of extraction techniques, innovative technologies, and chemometrics are described. Nowadays, processes so far tested on a pilot scale for grape waste are developed to enhance the extraction yields. Here, a picture of the Italian experience applied to the byproducts of the wine industry is given.
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