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Open AccessArticle

Metabolomics of Solanum lycopersicum Infected with Phytophthora infestans Leads to Early Detection of Late Blight in Asymptomatic Plants

1
Laboratory of Advanced Analytical Techniques in Natural Products, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá 111711, Colombia
2
Bioprospección de los Productos Naturales Amazónicos, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de la Amazonia, Florencia 180002, Colombia
3
ThoMSon Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of Campinas, Institute of Chemistry, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
4
Laboratório de Diagnostico Fitopatológico, Instituto Biológico, São Paulo 04014-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Makoto Tsunoda
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3330; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123330
Received: 28 October 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Sample Analysis by Liquid Chromatography)
Tomato crops suffer attacks of various pathogens that cause large production losses. Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a devastating disease in tomatoes because of its difficultly to control. Here, we applied metabolomics based on liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and metabolic profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis in the early detection of late blight on asymptomatic tomato plants and to discriminate infection times of 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 96 h after inoculation (hpi). MALDI-MS and LC-MS profiles of metabolites combined with multivariate data analysis are able to detect early-late blight-infected tomato plants, and metabolomics based on LC-MS discriminates infection times in asymptomatic plants. We found the metabolite tomatidine as an important biomarker of infection, saponins as early infection metabolite markers and isocoumarin as early and late asymptomatic infection marker along the post infection time. MALDI-MS and LC-MS analysis can therefore be used as a rapid and effective method for the early detection of late blight-infected tomato plants, offering a suitable tool to guide the correct management and application of sanitary defense approaches. LC-MS analysis also appears to be a suitable tool for identifying major metabolites of asymptomatic late blight-infected tomato plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: late blight; Phytophthora infestans; LC-MS; MALDI-MS; multivariate analysis; plant-pathogen interaction; tomato late blight; Phytophthora infestans; LC-MS; MALDI-MS; multivariate analysis; plant-pathogen interaction; tomato
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Galeano Garcia, P.; Neves dos Santos, F.; Zanotta, S.; Eberlin, M.N.; Carazzone, C. Metabolomics of Solanum lycopersicum Infected with Phytophthora infestans Leads to Early Detection of Late Blight in Asymptomatic Plants. Molecules 2018, 23, 3330.

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