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Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3208; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123208

Quantification of VOC Emissions from Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

1
Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław 50-375, Poland
2
Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław 50-375, Poland
3
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Constantinos K. Zacharis and Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 1 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
Full-Text   |   PDF [241 KB, uploaded 5 December 2018]

Abstract

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types of pyrolyzed biochars, produced from different types of feedstock, and under different pyrolysis conditions. SPME was a useful technology for surveying VOC emissions. Results provide an initial database of the types and relative quantities of VOCs emitted from CRDF. This data is needed for further development of CRDF technology and comprehensive assessment of environmental impact and practical storage, transport, and potential adoption of CRDF as means of energy and resource recovery from municipal waste. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds; torrefaction; waste to carbon; biochar; municipal solid waste; SPME volatile organic compounds; torrefaction; waste to carbon; biochar; municipal solid waste; SPME
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Białowiec, A.; Micuda, M.; Szumny, A.; Łyczko, J.; Koziel, J.A. Quantification of VOC Emissions from Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Molecules 2018, 23, 3208.

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