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Open AccessArticle

GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS Determination of the Volatile Composition of Essential Oils and Hydrosols (By-Products) from Four Eucalyptus Species Cultivated in Tuscany

PHYTOLAB-DISIA-Department of Informatics, Statistics and Applications “G. Parenti”, University of Florence, Viale Morgagni, 59-50134 Florence, Italy and QuMAP-PIN-Piazza Giovanni Ciardi, 25, 59100 Prato (PO), Italy
Department of NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Viale Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy
Versil Green Società Agricola s.s., via dei Cavalli 96, 55054 Massarosa (LU), Italy
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno Pisano 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Constantinos K. Zacharis and Paraskevas D. Tzanavaras
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 226;
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 9 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Phase Microextraction)
Essential oils are widely used as functional ingredients for potential multi-purpose functional uses. Hydrosols, co-products of the distillation of plant material, are used in food and cosmetic industries and in biological agriculture, but their volatile composition is poorly investigated. The volatile fractions of essential oils and hydrosols from four less-studied 1,8-cineol-rich Eucalyptus species (E. parvula L.A.S. Johnson & K.D. Hill, E. cinerea F. Muell, E. pulverulenta Sims and E. pulverulenta baby blue Sims), cultivated in Tuscany in a system of organic farming, were characterized by solvent dilution (essential oils) or extraction (hydrosols) followed by GC-MS and by HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS analysis. GC-MS analysis showed that essential oils were mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes, particularly 1,8-cineole, with monoterpenes hydrocarbons up to 10.8%. Relative differences in the abundance of minor terpenes as limonene, α-pinene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and alloaromandrene were pointed out and seem to be suitable for differentiation among EOs of the four different Eucalyptus species. Hydrosols of these species were characterized for the first time: they were mainly constituted by oxygenated monoterpenes (97.6–98.9%), with 1,8-cineole up to 1.6 g/L, while monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were detected only in traces. HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS analysis also allowed providing metabolic profiling of hydrosols for the direct comparison and visualization of volatile components, pointing out the potentially different uses of these products as functional ingredients in food, beverage, and cosmetic industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: aromatic water; hydrolat; volatile compounds; metabolic fingerprint; eucalyptol aromatic water; hydrolat; volatile compounds; metabolic fingerprint; eucalyptol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ieri, F.; Cecchi, L.; Giannini, E.; Clemente, C.; Romani, A. GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS Determination of the Volatile Composition of Essential Oils and Hydrosols (By-Products) from Four Eucalyptus Species Cultivated in Tuscany. Molecules 2019, 24, 226.

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